1989: Born Free and its supporters helped encourage CITES² to ban the international commercial ivory trade. The price of ivory crashed and markets in Europe and USA closed. The first symbolic ivory stockpile burn (12 tonnes) took place on 19th July 1989 in Kenya. 1999: despite Born Free’s best efforts, CITES approved the ‘one-off’ sale of almost 50 tonnes of ivory stockpiled by Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe to Japan.
Born Free predicted that poaching would continue. At least 6,000 elephants were killed and 17,000kg of ivory seized by customs. Born Free highlighted that this likely represented just 10-20% of the total slaughter and campaigned to ban the global ivory trade once more. 2000: CITES agreed ‘no more trade’ despite pressure from four southern African countries to sell more ivory to Japan. Born Free publishes the Stop the Clock report.
2002: Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa received permission to sell 60 tonnes of ivory stockpiles to Japan and China. Born Free and SSN estimated that at least 90,000kg of illegal ivory had been confiscated by customs between 1998 and 2002, i.e. 13,000 elephants slaughtered by poachers. And this is just the tip of the tusk, the small visible part of the global ivory racket. 2004: to Born Free’s dismay, CITES approved Namibia’s proposal for ‘non-commercial’ (tourist) trade in worked ‘ekipas’ (cultural ivory carvings).
Born Free publishes The Tip of the Tusk report, followed by two further updates in 2006 and 2007. 2007: the stockpile sales approved in 2002 were expanded from 60 tonnes to over 105 tonnes. A nine-year moratorium on international ivory sales by Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa was adopted. This moratorium came into effect immediately after the 2008 ‘one-off’ sale. 2008: the auctioned sale of over 105 tonnes of ivory from Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe and South Africa to China and Japan took place.
2009: Tanzania and Zambia submitted proposals seeking to exploit a loophole in the 2007 moratorium agreement. They were seeking to reduce the trade restrictions on their elephant populations which would allow them to trade in over 110 tonnes of ivory.2010: Born Free played a key role in successfully defeating Zambia and Tanzania’s proposals to reduce protection for their elephant populations and sell ivory at the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to CITES.
More here: Victory for Africa’s elephants. 2011: in July Kenya burned 4.8 tonnes of ivory seized by the Lusaka Agreement Task Force in Singapore in 2002. This not only kept the ivory out of the illegal market but also ensured that this ivory could never be made available for any potential future legal trade. More here: Elephants' Graveyard Offers Hope to the Living. 2012: Gabon burned 4.8 tonnes of ivory.
More here: Gabon’s Ivory Goes Up in Smoke. 2013: the USA and Philippines crushed their ivory stockpiles. The Clinton Global Initiative Elephant Partnership called for the establishment of internal ivory market moratoriums as a key objective to help stop the catastrophic population decline seen in recent years. Will Travers’ personal perspective: Ivory Crisis. 2014: a number of key countries implicated in the ivory trade destroyed either all or a portion of their ivory stockpiles.
The UK Government hosted a High-Level Meeting on Illegal Wildlife Trade which led to a number of key commitments impacting elephants. More here: Global Leaders Tackle Wildlife Crime/ Ministerial Statement 2016: Kenya, the first country to have publicly destroyed ivory stockpiles, burned over 100 tonnes of ivory in April, in a ceremony at Nairobi National park attended by the Kenyan President, the Secretary General of CITES, and many others.
The United States introduced strict limitations on ivory trade. At its World Conservation Congress in Hawaii, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature passed a Resolution encouraging on all countries to close their domestic ivory markets. At the 17th CITES CoP (24th Sept -5th Oct), despite the 183 Parties to CITES failure to return all African elephant populations on Appendix 1 of the Convention, there were important achievements for elephants.
Countries were encouraged to close down domestic ivory markets, and 'dispose' of ivory stockpiles. Any discussion of a future trade in ivory was terminated. Trade in live elephants, although not prohibited, will in future be subject to far greater controls - including a registration process. Botswana, the country that is currently home to 1/3 of Africa's elephants, declared unilaterally that it would treat its elephants as if they were on Appendix 1 (no trade!) from now on.
See Also: Too Faced Animal Testing
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Out of a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the hot blueness with the Florida sky, ran a little, tawny-haired boy. His bare feet, extending from his overalled legs, crackled towards the fallen palmettos. He leaped in to the air, flinging his arms towards a flock of white doves circling over him.
For other uses, see Ivory (disambiguation). The solid ivory image of Our Lady of Manaoag in her imperial regalia. Genuine ivory is held more valuable than gold among Santero artisans. Pangasinan, Philippines. 11th-century Italian carved elephant tusk, Louvre Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephant's) and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
It consists mainly of dentine (inorganic formula Ca10(PO4)6(CO3)·H2O)), one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin. The trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is well established and widespread; therefore, "ivory" can correctly be used to describe any mammalian teeth or tusks of commercial interest which are large enough to be carved or scrimshawed.
 It has been valued since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes and joint tubes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and wart hog are used as well. Elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors.
 The national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal. The word ivory ultimately derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu ("elephant"), through the Latin ebor- or ebur. Uses A depiction of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus crafted in elephant ivory An ivory tabernacle featuring the Madonna of Caress, France Main article: ivory carving Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, and decorative boxes for costly objects.
Ivory was often used to form the white of the eyes of statues. There is some evidence of either whale or walrus ivory used by the ancient Irish. Solinus, a Roman writer in the 3rd century claimed that the Celtic peoples in Ireland would decorate their sword-hilts with the 'teeth of beasts that swim in the sea'. Adomnan of Iona wrote a story about St Columba giving a sword decorated with carved ivory as a gift that a penitent would bring to his master so he could redeem himself from slavery.
 The Syrian and North African elephant populations were reduced to extinction, probably due to the demand for ivory in the Classical world. The Chinese have long valued ivory for both art and utilitarian objects. Early reference to the Chinese export of ivory is recorded after the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian ventured to the west to form alliances to enable the eventual free movement of Chinese goods to the west; as early as the first century BC, ivory was moved along the Northern Silk Road for consumption by western nations.
 Southeast Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China. Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to make everything from images of deities to the pipe stems and end pieces of opium pipes. The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, traditionally harvested ivory from their domesticated elephants. Ivory was prized for containers due to its ability to keep an airtight seal.
It was also commonly carved into elaborate seals utilized by officials to "sign" documents and decrees by stamping them with their unique official seal. In Southeast Asian countries, where Muslim Malay peoples live, such as Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, ivory was the material of choice for making the handles of kris daggers. In the Philippines, ivory was also used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture.
Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into a vast variety of shapes and objects. Examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, netsukes, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, and piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, and teeth from sperm whales, orcas and hippos can also be scrimshawed or superficially carved, thus retaining their morphologically recognizable shapes. Ivory usage in the last thirty years has moved towards mass production of souvenirs and jewelry.
In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had been made of wood. These hanko can be carved out in a matter of seconds using machinery and were partly responsible for massive African elephant decline in the 1980s, when the African elephant population went from 1.3 million to around 600,000 in ten years. Consumption before plastics An elaborately carved ivory tusk in Sa'dabad Palace, Iran Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses, mainly because of the white color it presents when processed.
It was formerly used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items. Synthetic substitutes for ivory in the use of most of these items have been developed since 1800: the billiard industry challenged inventors to come up with an alternative material that could be manufactured;:17 the piano industry abandoned ivory as a key covering material in the 1970s.
Ivory can be taken from dead animals – however, most ivory came from elephants that were killed for their tusks. For example, in 1930 to acquire 40 tons of ivory required the killing of approximately 700 elephants. Other animals which are now endangered were also preyed upon, for example, hippos, which have very hard white ivory prized for making artificial teeth. In the first half of the 20th century, Kenyan elephant herds were devastated because of demand for ivory, to be used for piano keys.
 During the Art Deco era from 1912 to 1940, dozens (if not hundreds) of European artists used ivory in the production of chryselephantine statues. Two of the most frequent users of ivory in their sculptured artworks were Ferdinand Preiss and Claire Colinet. Availability Main article: Ivory trade Men with ivory tusks, Dar es Salaam, c. 1900 Owing to the rapid decline in the populations of the animals that produce it, the importation and sale of ivory in many countries is banned or severely restricted.
In the ten years preceding a decision in 1989 by CITES to ban international trade in African elephant ivory, the population of African elephants declined from 1.3 million to around 600,000. It was found by investigators from the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) that CITES sales of stockpiles from Singapore and Burundi (270 tonnes and 89.5 tonnes respectively) had created a system that increased the value of ivory on the international market, thus rewarding international smugglers and giving them the ability to control the trade and continue smuggling new ivory.
 Since the ivory ban, some Southern African countries have claimed their elephant populations are stable or increasing, and argued that ivory sales would support their conservation efforts. Other African countries oppose this position, stating that renewed ivory trading puts their own elephant populations under greater threat from poachers reacting to demand. CITES allowed the sale of 49 tonnes of ivory from Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana in 1997 to Japan.
 In 2007 eBay, under pressure from the International Fund for Animal Welfare, banned all international sales of elephant-ivory products. The decision came after several mass slaughters of African elephants, most notably the 2006 Zakouma elephant slaughter in Chad. The IFAW found that up to 90% of the elephant-ivory transactions on eBay violated their own wildlife policies and could potentially be illegal.
In October 2008, eBay expanded the ban, disallowing any sales of ivory on eBay. A more recent sale in 2008 of 108 tonnes from the three countries and South Africa took place to Japan and China. The inclusion of China as an "approved" importing country created enormous controversy, despite being supported by CITES, the World Wide Fund for Nature and Traffic. They argued that China had controls in place and the sale might depress prices.
However, the price of ivory in China has skyrocketed. Some believe this may be due to deliberate price fixing by those who bought the stockpile, echoing the warnings from the Japan Wildlife Conservation Society on price-fixing after sales to Japan in 1997, and monopoly given to traders who bought stockpiles from Burundi and Singapore in the 1980s. Despite arguments prevailing on the ivory trade for the last thirty years through CITES, there is one fact upon which virtually all informed parties now agree – poaching of African elephants for ivory is now seriously on the increase.
 The debate surrounding ivory trade has often been depicted as Africa vs the West. However, in reality the southern Africans have always been in a minority within the African elephant range states. To reiterate this point, 19 African countries signed the "Accra Declaration" in 2006 calling for a total ivory trade ban, and 20 range states attended a meeting in Kenya calling for a 20-year moratorium in 2007.
 Controversy and conservation issues The use and trade of elephant ivory have become controversial because they have contributed to seriously declining elephant populations in many countries. It is estimated that consumption in Great Britain alone in 1831 amounted to the deaths of nearly 4,000 elephants. In 1975, the Asian elephant was placed on Appendix One of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), which prevents international trade between member countries.
The African elephant was placed on Appendix One in January 1990. Since then, some southern African countries have had their populations of elephants "downlisted" to Appendix Two, allowing sale of some stockpiles. In June 2015 more than a ton of confiscated ivory was crushed in New York's Times Square by the Wildlife Conservation Society to send a message that the illegal trade will not be tolerated.
The ivory, confiscated in New York and Philadelphia, was sent up a conveyor belt into a rock crusher. The Wildlife Conservation Society has pointed out that the global ivory trade leads to the slaughter of up to 35,000 elephants a year in Africa. China was the biggest market for poached ivory but announced they would phase out the legal domestic manufacture and sale of ivory products in May, 2015, and in September 2015 China and the U.
S. "said they would enact a nearly complete ban on the import and export of ivory." The Chinese market has a high degree of influence on the elephant population. Alternative sources Trade in the ivory from the tusks of dead wooly mammoths frozen in the tundra has occurred for 300 years and continues to be legal. Mammoth ivory is used today to make handcrafted knives and similar implements.
Mammoth ivory is rare and costly because mammoths have been extinct for millennia, and scientists are hesitant to sell museum-worthy specimens in pieces. Some estimates suggest that 10 million mammoths are still buried in Siberia. A species of hard nut is gaining popularity as a replacement for ivory, although its size limits its usability. It is sometimes called vegetable ivory, or tagua, and is the seed endosperm of the ivory nut palm commonly found in coastal rainforests of Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.
 Fossil walrus ivory from animals that died before 1972 is legal to buy and sell or possess in the United States, unlike many other types of ivory. Gallery The Bull Leaper, an ivory figurine from the palace of Knossos, Crete, 15th century BC Ancient Greek ivory pyxis with griffins attacking stags. Late 15th century BC. Ivory has always been a highly valuable material for carving.
Ivory cover of the Codex Aureus of Lorsch, c. 810, Carolingian dynasty, Victoria and Albert Museum Pig tusks Battle of Hannibal and Scipio (Alexander's victory over Poros), by Ignaz Elhafen, ca. 1700, Warsaw Royal Castle Section through the ivory tooth of a mammoth Casket, ivory and silver, Muslim Spain, 966 See also Destruction of ivory Ivory carving Vegetable ivory Walrus ivory Jim Nyamu References ^ "Identification Guide for Ivory and Ivory Substitutes" (PDF).
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^ Shamos, Mike (1999). The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. New York: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-55821-797-5. ^ "Ivory Tusks by the Ton". Popular Science: 45. November 1930. ^ Tomlinson, C., ed. (1866). Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts. London: Virtue & Co. Vol I, pages 929–930. ^ "Piano Keys From Elephant Tusk". Popular Science. January 1937. ^ Catley, Bryan (1978). Art Deco and Other Figures (1st ed.
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Traffic. 2008-10-28. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ Strazjuso, Jason; Caesy, Michael; Foreman, William (2010-05-15). "Ivory Trade threatens African Elephant". MSNBC. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ "Elephant poaching? None of our business' Influence of Japanese ivory market on illegal transboundary ivory trade" (PDF). Japan Tiger and Elephant Fund (JTEF). March 2010. ^ Damian Robin (2010-03-30). "China fuels East African Poaching".
Epoch Times. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ "Elephant Ivory Sales Denied to Halt Worldwide Poaching Crisis". Ens-newswire.com. 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ "Massive surge in elephant poaching". Biglifeafrica.org. 2010-03-23. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ "African countries set to lock horns over ivory". Bt.com.bn. 2007-05-31. Archived from the original on 2016-08-21.
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"China and US agree on ivory ban in bid to end illegal trade globally". Retrieved 2017-11-02. ^ "事实上，大象已经濒临灭绝" [Elephants on the Path of Extinction: The facts]. TheGuardian.com (in Chinese). 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ Isabel Hilton (2016-09-09). "Why the Guardian is publishing its elephant reporting in Chinese". TheGuardian.com. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ Kramer, Andrew E.
(2008-03-25). "Trade in mammoth ivory, helped by global thaw, flourishes in Russia". New York Times. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ Lister, Adrian; Bahn, Paul G. (2007). Mammoths: giants of the ice age. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25319-3. ^ Lara Farrar (2005-04-26). "Could plant ivory save elephants?". CNN. Retrieved 2017-11-03. ^ Walrus ivory dos and don'ts (PDF) (pamphlet), US Fish and Wildlife Service External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ivory.
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