We often eat crabs, but in order for crabs to grow to a size where they are harvested by crab fishermen for sale as food, they need to get proper nutrition as well. The three main types of crabs found in most of the world's oceans and seas are hermit crabs, fiddler crabs and sand crabs, and there is a slight difference in the answer to the question "What do Crabs Eat?" depending upon the type of crab.
What do Hermit Crabs Eat? Hermit crabs are often kept in aquariums, where they eat algae as well as bits of food that fish and aquarium animals, such as snails, leave behind. Commercial hermit crab foods are available for crabs that are raised without other species present and therefore do not have access to food, but aquarium hermit crabs thrive on practically any food, from beef to eggs and vegetables.
In the wild, hermit crabs crawl along beaches and shores to look for food in the sand, and they will eat anything from leaves to fruit and even wood. Hermit crabs are actually social animals that live in colonies, and they are called hermit crabs because they protect their soft bodies by living in shells that other sea animals discard, or that they obtain by killing other sea animals. However, when they kill animals for their shells, hermit crabs usually do not eat the animals themselves.
For a more indepth look at What do Hermit Crabs Eat then please follow this link. What do Fiddler Crabs Eat? Fiddler crabs are sometimes sold for aquariums, but they are usually wild crabs, and they are known for the difference in size between their two claws. The smaller claw is the claw that fiddler crabs use for eating, and they use the larger ones for signaling their intentions to other crabs.
Before a fiddler crab eats its meal of algae, fungus or other plant material, it sifts through the sandy or muddy waste from which it takes its food to remove any inedible particles. This helps keep its environment clean and aerated, and it leaves behind what it cannot eat in the form of small, round balls that it also uses to mark its territory. Fiddler crabs are occasionally sold as aquarium animals, but these crabs need to be kept in salt water even if they are advertised as fresh-water crabs.
They are therefore not recommended for most aquarium hobbyists. What do Sand Crabs Eat? Sand crabs refer to quite a number of different species of ocean crab, all of which are known to burrow in the sand for food. Some of the food that sand crabs find while burrowing include smaller crabs, as well as baby turtles and carcasses of dead birds such as seagulls. Smaller crabs in turn feed upon mollusks and worms, as well as plankton and algae.
Very few, if any, of the species that are commonly classified as sand crabs can be kept in aquariums, as they are saltwater creatures that require high temperatures to survive. In general, crabs are scavengers, and as such they fulfill an important role in aquatic ecology by keeping their surroundings free of decomposing food that can cause bacteria to breed. Even larger crabs that feed on live prey aerate the sand in which they burrow, and thereby help to keep water and air circulating in their habitats.
See Also: What Can You Do To Stop Animal Abuse
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From a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the hot blueness with the Florida sky, ran a small, tawny-haired boy. His bare ft, extending from his overalled legs, crackled against the fallen palmettos. He leaped to the air, flinging his arms toward a flock of white doves circling higher than him.
For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). CrabTemporal range: Jurassic–Recent PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K Pg N Grey swimming crabLiocarcinus vernalis Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Clade: Euarthropoda Subphylum: Crustacea Class: Malacostraca Order: Decapoda Suborder: Pleocyemata Infraorder: BrachyuraLinnaeus, 1758 Sections and subsections Dromiacea Raninoida Cyclodorippoida Eubrachyura Heterotremata Thoracotremata Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (Greek: βραχύς, translit.
brachys = short,οὐρά / οura = tail), usually entirely hidden under the thorax. They live in all the world's oceans, in fresh water, and on land, are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton and have a single pair of claws. Many other animals with similar names – such as hermit crabs, king crabs, porcelain crabs, horseshoe crabs, and crab lice – are not true crabs. Evolution Gecarcinus quadratus, a land crab from Central America Crabs are generally covered with a thick exoskeleton, composed primarily of highly mineralized chitin, and armed with a single pair of chelae (claws).
Crabs are found in all of the world's oceans, while many crabs live in fresh water and on land, particularly in tropical regions. Crabs vary in size from the pea crab, a few millimetres wide, to the Japanese spider crab, with a leg span of up to 4 metres (13 ft). About 850 species of crab are freshwater, terrestrial or semi-terrestrial species; they are found throughout the world's tropical and semi-tropical regions.
They were previously thought to be a monophyletic group, but are now believed to represent at least two distinct lineages, one in the Old World and one in the New World. The earliest unambiguous crab fossils date from the Jurassic, although Carboniferous Imocaris, known only from its carapace, may be a primitive crab. The radiation of crabs in the Cretaceous and afterward may be linked either to the break-up of Gondwana or to the concurrent radiation of bony fish, crabs' main predators.
 Sexual dimorphism The underside of a male (top) and a female (bottom) individual of Pachygrapsus marmoratus, showing the difference in shape of the abdomen Crabs often show marked sexual dimorphism. Males often have larger claws, a tendency which is particularly pronounced in the fiddler crabs of the genus Uca (Ocypodidae). In fiddler crabs, males have one claw which is greatly enlarged and which is used for communication, particularly for attracting a mate.
 Another conspicuous difference is the form of the pleon (abdomen); in most male crabs, this is narrow and triangular in form, while females have a broader, rounded abdomen. This is because female crabs brood fertilised eggs on their pleopods. Red Crab BBQ from Bangladesh Reproduction and lifecycle Crab (Pachygrapsus marmoratus) on Istrian coast, Adriatic Sea Crabs attract a mate through chemical (pheromones), visual, acoustic, or vibratory means.
Pheromones are used by most fully aquatic crabs, while terrestrial and semiterrestrial crabs often use visual signals, such as fiddler crab males waving their large claws to attract females. The vast number of brachyuran crabs have internal fertilisation and mate belly-to-belly. For many aquatic species, mating takes place just after the female has moulted and is still soft. Females can store the sperm for a long time before using it to fertilise their eggs.
When fertilisation has taken place, the eggs are released onto the female's abdomen, below the tail flap, secured with a sticky material. In this location, they are protected during embryonic development. Females carrying eggs are called "berried" since the eggs resemble round berries. When development is complete, the female releases the newly hatched larvae into the water, where they are part of the plankton.
The release is often timed with the tides. The free-swimming tiny zoea larvae can float and take advantage of water currents. They have a spine, which probably reduces the rate of predation by larger animals. The zoea of most species must find food, but some crabs provide enough yolk in the eggs that the larval stages can continue to live off the yolk. Female crab Xantho poressa at spawning time in the Black Sea, carrying eggs under her abdomen Each species has a particular number of zoeal stages, separated by moults, before they change into a megalopa stage, which resembles an adult crab, except for having the abdomen (tail) sticking out behind.
After one more moult, the crab is a juvenile, living on the bottom rather than floating in the water. This last moult, from megalopa to juvenile, is critical, and it must take place in a habitat that is suitable for the juvenile to survive.:63–77 Most species of terrestrial crabs must migrate down to the ocean to release their larvae; in some cases, this entails very extensive migrations. After living for a short time as larvae in the ocean, the juveniles must do this migration in reverse.
In many tropical areas with land crabs, these migrations often result in considerable roadkill of migrating crabs.:113–114 Once crabs have become juveniles, they will still have to keep moulting many more times to become adults. They are covered with a hard shell, which would otherwise prevent growth. The moult cycle is coordinated by hormones. When preparing for moult, the old shell is softened and partly eroded away, while the rudimentary beginnings of a new shell form under it.
At the time of moulting, the crab takes in a lot of water to expand and crack open the old shell at a line of weakness along the back edge of the carapace. The crab must then extract all of itself – including its legs, mouthparts, eyestalks, and even the lining of the front and back of the digestive tract – from the old shell. This is a difficult process that takes many hours, and if a crab gets stuck, it will die.
After freeing itself from the old shell (now called an exuvia), the crab is extremely soft and hides until its new shell has hardened. While the new shell is still soft, the crab can expand it to make room for future growth.:78–79 Behavior Carpilius convexus consuming Heterocentrotus trigonarius in Hawaii Crabs typically walk sideways (a behaviour which gives us the word crabwise), because of the articulation of the legs which makes a sidelong gait more efficient.
 However, some crabs walk forwards or backwards, including raninids,Libinia emarginata and Mictyris platycheles. Some crabs, notably the Portunidae and Matutidae, are also capable of swimming, the Portunidae especially so as their last pair of walking legs is flattened into swimming paddles.:96 Crabs are mostly active animals with complex behaviour patterns. They can communicate by drumming or waving their pincers.
Crabs tend to be aggressive towards one another, and males often fight to gain access to females. On rocky seashores, where nearly all caves and crevices are occupied, crabs may also fight over hiding holes.Fiddler crabs (genus Uca) dig burrows in sand or mud, which they use for resting, hiding, and mating, and to defend against intruders.:28–29, 99 Crabs are omnivores, feeding primarily on algae, and taking any other food, including molluscs, worms, other crustaceans, fungi, bacteria and detritus, depending on their availability and the crab species.
For many crabs, a mixed diet of plant and animal matter results in the fastest growth and greatest fitness. However, some species are more specialised in their diets. Some eat plankton, some eat primarily shellfish like clams, and some even catch fish.:85 Crabs are known to work together to provide food and protection for their family, and during mating season to find a comfortable spot for the female to release her eggs.
 Human consumption Fisheries Fishermen sorting velvet crabs at Fionnphort, Scotland Main article: Crab fisheries Crabs make up 20% of all marine crustaceans caught, farmed, and consumed worldwide, amounting to 1.5 million tonnes annually. One species, Portunus trituberculatus, accounts for one-fifth of that total. Other commercially important taxa include Portunus pelagicus, several species in the genus Chionoecetes, the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), Charybdis spp.
, Cancer pagurus, the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and Scylla serrata, each of which yields more than 20,000 tonnes annually. In some species, crab meat is harvested by manually twisting and pulling off one or both claws and returning the live crab to the water in the belief the crab will survive and regenerate the claws, thereby making it a sustainable industry. Cookery See also: Crab meat and List of crab dishes Crab masala from Karnataka, India Crabs are prepared and eaten as a dish in several different ways all over the world.
Some species are eaten whole, including the shell, such as soft-shell crab; with other species, just the claws or legs are eaten. The latter is particularly common for larger crabs, such as the snow crab. Mostly in East Asian cultures, the roe of the female crab is also eaten, which usually appears orange or yellow in fertile crabs. In some regions, spices improve the culinary experience. In Southeast Asia and Indosphere, masala crab and chilli crab are examples of heavily spiced dishes.
In the Chesapeake Bay region, blue crab is often eaten with Old Bay Seasoning. Alaskan king crab or snow crab legs are usually simply boiled and served with garlic or lemon butter. For the British dish Dressed Crab, the crab meat is extracted and placed inside the hard shell. One American way to prepare crab meat is by extracting it and adding a flour mix, creating a crab cake. Crabs are also used in bisque, a global dish of French origin.
Imitation crab, made from minced fish products that are crafted to resemble crab meat, is disdained throughout the culinary industry as an unacceptably low-quality substitute for real crab. This does not hinder its popularity in Japan (where it originated) and in home cooking, where cost is often a chief concern. Pain Main article: Pain in crustaceans Crabs are often boiled alive. In 2005, Norwegian scientists concluded that crustaceans could not feel pain.
 However, a study by Bob Elwood and Mirjam Appel of Queens University in Belfast, found that hermit crabs reacted to electric shocks. This may indicate that some crustaceans are able to feel and remember pain. Classification The infraorder Brachyura contains 6,793 species in 93 families, as many as the remainder of the Decapoda. The evolution of crabs is characterised by an increasingly robust body, and a reduction in the abdomen.
Although many other groups have undergone similar processes, carcinisation is most advanced in crabs. The telson is no longer functional in crabs, and the uropods are absent, having probably evolved into small devices for holding the reduced abdomen tight against the sternum. In most decapods, the gonopores (sexual openings) are found on the legs. However, since crabs use the first two pairs of pleopods (abdominal appendages) for sperm transfer, this arrangement has changed.
As the male abdomen evolved into a narrower shape, the gonopores have moved towards the midline, away from the legs, and onto the sternum. A similar change occurred, independently, with the female gonopores. The movement of the female gonopore to the sternum defines the clade Eubrachyura, and the later change in the position of the male gonopore defines the Thoracotremata. It is still a subject of debate whether those crabs where the female, but not male, gonopores are situated on the sternum, form a monophyletic group.
 Superfamilies Numbers of extant and extinct (†) species are given in brackets. The superfamily Eocarcinoidea, containing Eocarcinus and Platykotta, was formerly thought to contain the oldest crabs; it is now considered part of the Anomura. Examples of different crab sections Dromia personata (Dromiacea: Dromiidae) Ranina ranina (Raninoida: Raninidae) Corystes cassivelaunus (Heterotremata: Corystidae) Ocypode quadrata (Thoracotremata: Ocypodidae) A crab divination pot in Kapsiki, North Cameroon.
Section Dromiacea Dakoticancroidea (6†) Dromioidea (147, 85†) Glaessneropsoidea (45†) Homolodromioidea (24, 107†) Homoloidea (73, 49†) Section Raninoida (46, 196†) Section Cyclodorippoida (99, 27†) Section Eubrachyura Subsection Heterotremata Aethroidea (37, 44†) Bellioidea (7) Bythograeoidea (14) Calappoidea (101, 71†) Cancroidea (57, 81†) Carpilioidea (4, 104†) Cheiragonoidea (3, 13†) Corystoidea (10, 5†) Componocancroidea (1†) Dairoidea (4, 8†) Dorippoidea (101, 73†) Eriphioidea (67, 14†) Gecarcinucoidea (349) Goneplacoidea (182, 94†) Hexapodoidea (21, 25†) Leucosioidea (488, 113†) Majoidea (980, 89†) Orithyioidea (1) Palicoidea (63, 6†) Parthenopoidea (144, 36†) Pilumnoidea (405, 47†) Portunoidea (455, 200†) Potamoidea (662, 8†) Pseudothelphusoidea (276) Pseudozioidea (22, 6†) Retroplumoidea (10, 27†) Trapezioidea (58, 10†) Trichodactyloidea (50) Xanthoidea (736, 134†) Subsection Thoracotremata Cryptochiroidea (46) Grapsoidea (493, 28†) Ocypodoidea (304, 14†) Pinnotheroidea (304, 13†) Cultural influences Both the constellation Cancer and the astrological sign Cancer are named after the crab, and depicted as a crab.
William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse drew the Crab Nebula in 1848 and noticed its similarity to the animal; the Crab Pulsar lies at the centre of the nebula. The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped nature, especially the sea, and often depicted crabs in their art. In Greek mythology, Karkinos was a crab that came to the aid of the Lernaean Hydra as it battled Heracles. One of Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories, The Crab that Played with the Sea, tells the story of a gigantic crab who made the waters of the sea go up and down, like the tides.
 The Kapsiki people, North Cameroon use the way crabs handle objects for divination. References ^ Sammy De Grave; N. Dean Pentcheff; Shane T. Ahyong; et al. (2009). "A classification of living and fossil genera of decapod crustaceans" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Suppl. 21: 1–109. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. ^ Henry George Liddell; Robert Scott. "βραχύς". A Greek–English Lexicon.
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ISBN 978-0-8014-5050-1. OCLC 794640315. ^ a b Sally Sleinis; Gerald E. Silvey (1980). "Locomotion in a forward walking crab". Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology. 136 (4): 301–312. doi:10.1007/BF00657350. ^ A. G. Vidal-Gadea; M.D. Rinehart; J.H. Belanger (March 2008). "Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans".
Arthropod Structure & Development. 37 (2): 179–194. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2007.06.002. PMID 18089130. ^ "Spanner crab Ranina ranina". Fishing and Aquaculture. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries. 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-04. ^ A. G. Vidal-Gadea; J. H. Belanger (2009). "Muscular anatomy of the legs of the forward walking crab, Libinia emarginata (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea)". Arthropod Structure & Development.
38 (3): 179–194. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2008.12.002. PMID 19166968. ^ a b c Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 17: 1–286. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. ^ "Crab (animal)". Encarta. Microsoft. 2005. ^ The Miles Kelly Book of Life.
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–M. Bouchard (1998). "Evolution of the abdominal holding systems of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura)". Zoosystema. 20 (4): 613–694. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-18. ^ "Global Capture Production 1950-2004". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2006-08-26. ^ "Stone Crabs FAQs". Retrieved 2012-09-23. ^ Lynsey Patterson; Jaimie T.A. Dick; Robert W. Elwood (January 2009).
"Claw removal and feeding ability in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus: implications for fishery practice". Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 116 (2): 302–305. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2008.08.007. ^ Queen's University, Belfast (October 10, 2007). "Declawing crabs may lead to their death". Science Daily. Retrieved 2012-09-21. ^ "Recreational Stone Crabbing Information". Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
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^ a b Joel W. Martin; George E. Davis (2001). An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea (PDF). Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. p. 132. ^ M. de Saint Laurent (1980). "Sur la classification et la phylogénie des Crustacés Décapodes Brachyoures. II. Heterotremata et Thoracotremata Guinot, 1977". Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. t. 290: 1317–1320. ^ Jérôme Chablais; Rodney M.
Feldmann; Carrie E. Schweitzer (2011). "A new Triassic decapod, Platykotta akaina, from the Arabian shelf of the northern United Arab Emirates: earliest occurrence of the Anomura" (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 85: 93–102. doi:10.1007/s12542-010-0080-y. ^ B. B. Rossi (1969). The Crab Nebula: Ancient History and Recent Discoveries. Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
CSR-P-69-27. ^ Elizabeth Benson (1972). The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press. ISBN 978-0-500-72001-1. ^ Katherine Berrin; Larco Museum (1997). The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-500-01802-6. ^ Kipling, Rudyard (1902). "The Crab that Played with the Sea". Just So Stories. Macmillan.
External links Find more aboutCrabat Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata Taxonomy from Wikispecies Decapoda at Curlie (based on DMOZ) v t e Superfamilies of Infraclass Brachyura (true crabs) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Suborder Pleocyemata Dromiacea Dakoticancroidea† Dromioidea Glaessneropsoidea† Homolodromioidea Homoloidea Raninoida Raninoidea Cyclodorippoida Cyclodorippoidea Eubrachyura Heterotremata Aethroidea Bellioidea Bythograeoidea Calappoidea Cancroidea Carpilioidea Cheiragonoidea Componocancroidea† Corystoidea Dairoidea Dorippoidea Eriphioidea Gecarcinucoidea Goneplacoidea Hexapodoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Orithyioidea Palicoidea Parthenopoidea Pilumnoidea Portunoidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Pseudozioidea Retroplumoidea Trapezioidea Trichodactyloidea Xanthoidea Thoracotremata Cryptochiroidea Grapsoidea Ocypodoidea Pinnotheroidea v t e Principal commercial fishery species groups Wild Large pelagic fish Mackerel Salmon Saury Shark Swordfish Tuna albacore bigeye Atlantic bluefin Pacific bluefin southern bluefin skipjack yellowfin Forage fish Anchovy Capelin Herring Ilish Menhaden Sardines Shad Sprat european Demersal fish Catfish Cod Atlantic Pacific Alaska pollock Flatfish flounder halibut plaice sole turbot Haddock Mullet Orange roughy Pollock Rockfish Smelt-whitings Toothfish Freshwater fish Carp Sturgeon Tilapia Trout Other wild fish Eel Whitebait more.
.. Crustaceans Crab Krill Lobster Shrimp more... Molluscs Abalone Mussels Octopus Oysters Scallops Squid more... Echinoderms Sea cucumbers Sea urchin more... Farmed Carp bighead common crucian grass silver Catfish Freshwater prawns Gilt-head bream Mussels Oysters Salmon Atlantic salmon trout coho chinook Scallops Seaweed Shrimp Tilapia Commercial fishing World fish production Commercial species Fishing topics Fisheries glossary v t e Edible crustaceans Shrimp/prawns Acetes Crangon crangon Cryphiops caementarius Dried shrimp Indian prawn Litopenaeus setiferus Macrobrachium rosenbergii Palaemon serratus Pandalus borealis Penaeus esculentus Penaeus monodon Shrimp paste Whiteleg shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri Lobsters (incl.
slipper & spiny) American lobster Arctides guineensis California spiny lobster Homarus gammarus Ibacus peronii Japanese spiny lobster Jasus Jasus edwardsii Jasus lalandii Metanephrops challengeri Thenus orientalis Nephrops norvegicus Palinurus elephas Panulirus argus Panulirus cygnus Panulirus echinatus Panulirus guttatus Panulirus homarus Panulirus longipes Panulirus ornatus Panulirus pascuensis Panulirus penicillatus Panulirus versicolor Parribacus japonicus Sagmariasus Scyllarides herklotsii Scyllarides latus Scyllarus arctus Thymops birsteini Tristan rock lobster Crabs Callinectes sapidus Callinectes similis Cancer irroratus Cancer bellianus Cancer pagurus Chaceon fenneri Chaceon quinquedens Chinese mitten crab Chionoecetes Declawing of crabs Dungeness crab Florida stone crab Gecarcinus ruricola Horsehair crab Hypothalassia acerba Jonah crab Maja squinado Menippe adina Orithyia sinica Ovalipes australiensis Pie crust crab Portunus pelagicus Portunus trituberculatus Ranina ranina Scylla paramamosain Scylla serrata Crayfish Acocil Astacus astacus Marron Paranephrops Procambarus clarkii Orconectes virilis Signal crayfish Others Austromegabalanus psittacus Coconut crab Galathea strigosa Glyptolithodes Goose barnacle King crab Krill Langostino Lysiosquillina maculata Mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria Paralithodes camtschaticus Red king crab Squat lobster Squilla mantis Tasmanian giant crab Thalassina Authority control GND: 4165405-5 NDL: 00564882 Retrieved from "https://en.