Plants of the temperate forest Unlike tropical forests, temperate forests have just two layers of vegetation. The tallest trees have their foliage generally about 15-30 m above ground and a layer of shrubs and smaller trees underneath, at approximately 5-10 m. This is why the soil receives more light than in tropical forests and the undergrowth is luxuriant: ferns, mosses and lichens, especially in very rainy areas.
During the spring growth, i.e. when the tree foliage has not completely formed yet, there is plenty of light reaching the ground and this makes plants grow on the ground. This is why many of the species that live on the ground grow, flower and bear fruits before late summer. Later on, sciophilus plants, i.e. plants that like shade, start to grow. These plants have extremely efficient mechanisms to capture and use low-intensity light and are able therefore to survive even when the foliage completely covers the soil underneath.
The main trees living in this biome are: beeches, sycamores, oaks, aspens, walnut trees, lime trees, chestnut trees, birches, elms and in America tulip trees. The beechBeeches (Fagus selvatica) can reach up to 40 mt tall and have a large, dome-shaped foliage. Their fruits, called beech nuts, look like chestnut husks, but their thorns do not prick since they are softer and more rounded. They prefer clayey and airy soils, in wet areas, away from harsh winter frost.
They are common in Central and Western Europe, where they are largely used to make timber. They are not only extremely useful (furniture, parks, railway sleepers, cellulose), but also commonly used as ornamental trees.SycamoreSycamores (Acer pseudoplatanus) live essentially in hilly and mountainous northern woods only, up to 1800 m above sea level. They grow quickly, they like fresh and wet soils and can reach up to 25-30 mt tall.
OakOaks (Quercus spp.) are trees or shrubs that can reach up to 40 mt tall. Oaks can live to 500 – 1000 years of age. Their fruits are elongated acorns, protected at the base by a cup-shaped shell. They are widespread in tropical mountain areas (Mexico, Himalaya, Indonesia), in Mediterranean climates (California, Mediterranean areas) and in temperate climates (North America, Asia, Europe). Oaks are used to make timber, stairs, parks, furniture, casks and railway sleepers.
AspenAspens (Populus tremula) are medium-size trees than can reach up to 25 mt tall. They grow quickly. They like warm and sunny areas. They are scattered about Central Europe and rarer in Western Europe. They can be grown on uncultivated land to graft them quickly and for long. They are very resistant to industrial waste, and actually grow well in town. Walnut treeWalnut trees (Juglas regia) are large trees that can reach up to 20 mt tall.
Their fruits are stone fruits (they are fleshy fruits, i.e. the ovary wall that envelops the seeds becomes juicy when mature) with a green fleshy part (husk), which, when dry, releases its woody stone (walnut) which contains an edible seed rich in fats. Walnut trees are widespread everywhere as fruit trees and for their precious timber which is used to make furniture; they are productively grown in temperate areas: the most important walnut producing country are the United States.
Lime treeLime trees (Tilia cordata) are beautiful, straight-trunk trees that can reach up to 30 metres tall. There are a variety of lime trees, one of the most common ones being the Tilia platyphyilos. Wild lime trees can be found in coppices, bushes, sunny slopes and rocks, along riverbanks in the mountain and submontane areas of Central Europe; it is rarer in Western Europe. Lime trees are often used to shade town streets, to decorate parks and gardens.
For its look and scent, the ancient Greeks have always associated this plant to womanliness; they actually considered it as Aphrodite’s favourite tree. Chestnut treeChestnut trees (Castanea sativa) are big, 20-30 m tall trees. Their flowers are encased in a thorny “husk”, which is first green, then turns brown-yellowish. Once fecundated, it produces the fruits, i.e. the chestnuts. More specifically, these fruits can be called chestnuts if each husk contains two or three fruits.
If a husk produces only one fruit, then such fruit, which is very big and spheroid, is called ‘marron’. Chestnuts ripen in autumn. Depending on the variety, some of which ripen earlier, some later, they can be eaten fresh from early September to early November.BirchBirches (Betula pendula) come from Europe and the south-east of Asia. They grow well in sandy and peaty soils. The genus takes its name from the Celtic betu.
Silver birches are widespread in Europe, where they reach a latitude of 65° north and Sicily south. They love the sun, they grow alone or in small groups in hilly and mountainous sparse woods, along with broad-leaved and coniferous trees. In the wild state, they can grow even on dry and bare, preferably acid, soils, with enough water, and can tolerate the cold quite well. They are used as ornamental trees for their elegant deportment and the decorative colour of their bark and leaves.
, associandosi a latifoglie e conifere. ElmElms (Ulmus carpinifolia) come from North-Africa, Europe and south-western Asia. They are Ulmaceae plants and can reach up to 30 m tall. Their foliage is hemispherical, their branches are thin and pale brown, their flowers are small and red. Their bark is grey-brown with deep furrows, their leaves are oval with a pointed end and a slanting base. Tulip treeTulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera) take their name from the fact their flowers are shaped like tulips.
This species comes from the eastern part of North America and has been brought to our continent in the mid-17th century, when it was used as an ornamental tree for the beauty of its flowers and leaves and in Central Europe also to make timber. A heliophilus (that loves light), rural and long-living plant, it tolerates harsh cold quite well, but is very demanding when it comes to soil, that must be deep and fertile.
The wood of the tulip-tree is pale yellow and is called “yellow poplar” because it looks like it; it is fairly good quality, woodworm-proof and can be used in a wide range of applications, especially inSee Also: Animals Native To England
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Temperate forest in Germany just as the leaf canopy is opening Temperate deciduous forests or temperate broad-leaf forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year. They are found in areas with warm moist summers and cool winters.Archibold, O. W. 1995. Ecology of World Vegetation,London: Chapman and Hall.</ref> The three major areas of this forest type occur in the Northern Hemisphere: eastern North America, East Asia, and Europe.
Smaller areas occur in Australasia and southern South America. Examples of typical trees in the Northern Hemisphere's deciduous forests include oak, maple, beech, and elm, while in the Southern Hemisphere, trees of the genus Nothofagus dominate this type of forest. The diversity of tree species is higher in regions where the winter is milder, and also in mountainous regions that provide an array of soil types and microclimates.
 The largest intact, temperate deciduous forest in the world is protected inside of the six-million-acre Adirondack Park in Upstate New York.  Ecology Bloodroot, like many other spring ephemerals, flowers in the spring before the forest canopy appears. The principal factor operating in these forests is the seasonal appearance and disappearance of the canopy. Shade from the canopy limits the growth of many kinds of plants.
Many species that are typical of these forests time their growth and flowering to the short period just before the canopy opens; hence, they are known as spring ephemerals. Examples include trilliums and bloodroot. Most spring ephemerals are insect-pollinated, and the seeds themselves are often transported by ants, a mode of dispersal known as myrmecochory. A smaller number of species is able to grow under the canopy, and even a few that grow during the period when leaves are being lost.
The average yearly precipitation is 30 - 60 in (75 – 150 cm). Temperate deciduous forests have a great variety of plant species. Most have three levels of plants. Lichen, moss, ferns, wildflowers, and other small plants can be found on the forest floor the shrubs fill in the middle level, and hardwood trees like maple, oak, birch, magnolia, sweet gum, and beech make up the third level. Birds such as broad-winged hawks, cardinals, snowy owls, and pileated woodpeckers are also found in this biome.
Mammals include white-tailed deer, raccoons, opossums, porcupines, and red foxes. Animals that live in the temperate deciduous forest must be able to adapt to the changing seasons. Many understory plants have leaf adaptions to cope with low light levels, and the need to exploit moving flecks of light on the forest floor. A few, such as Indian pipe and Corallorhiza orchids, have adapted to the shade by parasitism.
The trees similarly are controlled by shade. Most tree seedlings require small gaps when trees fall and make space to regenerate. A few require larger gaps such as those produced by windstorms. Gradients of soil moisture, soil depth, elevation and aspect control the distribution of many trees, shrubs and herbaceous species. Some require unusual conditions such as steep slopes, infertile soil, and drought to escape competition from the more common tree species.
 Pileated woodpeckers depend upon wood-boring beetles or beetle larvae as a source of food and use dead or dying trees as nests. Many migratory birds time their arrival to coincide with the opening of the canopy, which provides the insects that are their principal food sources for raising young. The spring warblers of North America are a typical, for example the black-throated blue warbler.
Owing to the availability of wood from standing and fallen trees, woodpeckers are frequently found. The pileated woodpecker is a typical large species. Fallen wood, known as coarse woody debris, provides shelter for many kinds of amphibians, particularly salamanders. Many well-known animals live in this kind of forest; a few examples include squirrels, which are an important canopy species, and bears, which hibernate in the winter.
The top predators in deciduous forest were once wolves and cougars, along with species of weasel like the fisher. Human effects Humans have often colonized areas in the temperate deciduous forest. They have harvested wood for timber and charcoal. During the settlement of North America, potash made from tree ashes was exported back to Europe as fertilizer. This left less than one-quarter of original forests to remain.
Many forests are now small fragments dissected by fields and roads; these islands of green often differ substantially from the original forests, particularly along the edges. The introduction of exotic diseases continues to be a threat to forest trees, and hence, the forest; examples include the loss of chestnut and elm. At the same time, species such as deer, which are clearing rather than true forest animals, have expanded their range and proliferated in these altered landscapes.
 Large deer populations have deleterious effects on tree regeneration overall, but particularly for edible species including yew, yellow birch, and hemlock. Deer grazing also has significant negative effects on the number and kind of herbaceous flowering plants. The continuing pressure to increase deer populations, and the continued killing of top carnivores, suggests that overgrazing by deer will continue to be a significant forest conservation problem.
Objective criteria for the restoration of deciduous forest include large trees, coarse woody debris, spring ephemeral, and top predators. Gallery Forests maintain water flow in streams. A mature elm tree Young deciduous forest Nothofagus antarctica in summer See also Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest International Year of Forests Old-growth forest References ^ Wen, J.
1999. Evolution of eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunct distributions in flowering plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30:421-455 ^ Archibold, O. W. 1995. Ecology of World egetation. London: Chapman and Hall. Figure 6.1 ^ Keddy, P.A. 2007, Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ^ Montgomery, C.K. 2011, Regional Planning for a Sustainable America: How Creative Programs are Promoting Prosperity and Saving the Environment, Rutgers University Press ^ Braun, E.
L. 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America. New York: Hafner. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2007. Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ^ Archibold, O. W. 1995. Ecology of World V1995. Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Functional Groups. 3rd edn. New York: Springer-Verlag. ^ Keddy, P.A. 2007. Plants and Vegetation: Origins, Processes, Consequences.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ^ Whittaker, R. H. 1956. Vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecological Monographs 26: 1–79. ^ Keddy, P.A. and P. MacLellan. 1990. Centrifugal organization in forests. Oikos 58: 75-84. ^ Hughes, J. D. 1982. Deforestation, erosion, and forest management in ancient Greece and Rome. Journal of Forest History 26: 60–75. ^ Wilcove, D. S., C. H. McLellan, and A.
P. Dobson. 1986. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. pp. 237–256. In M. E. Soul´e (ed.) Conservation B; the Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates. ^ Harris, L. D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation of Biotic Diversity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ^ Little, C. E. 1995. The Dying of the Trees: The Pandemic in America’s Forests.
New York: Penguin Books. ^ Latham, R. E., J. Beyea, M. Benner, C.A. Dunn, M. A. Fajvan, R.R. Freed, M. Grund, S. B. Horsley, A. F. Rhoads, and B. P. Shissler. 2005. Managing White-tailed Deer in Forest Habitat from an Ecosystem Perspective: Pennsylvania Case Study. Harrisburg: Audubon Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania Habitat Alliance. ^ Latham, R. E., J. Beyea, M. Benner, C.A. Dunn, M. A. Fajvan, R.R.
Freed, M. Grund, S. B. Horsley, A. F. Rhoads, and B. P. Shissler. 2005. Managing White-tailed Deer in Forest Habitat from an Ecosystem Perspective: Pennsylvania Case Study. Harrisburg: Audubon Pennsylvania and Pennsylvania Habitat Alliance. ^ Keddy, P.A. and C. G.Drummond. 1996. Ecological properties for the evaluation, management, and restoration of temperate deciduous forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications 6: 748–762.
External links A map of biome distribution (Temperate Deciduous Forest is in dark green) v t e Biogeographic regionalisations Biomes Terrestrial biomes Polar/montane Tundra Taiga Montane grasslands and shrublands Temperate Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Tropical and subtropical Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Dry Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands Wet Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland Aquatic biomes Pond Littoral Intertidal Mangroves Kelp forests Coral reefs Neritic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Demersal zone Other biomes Endolithic zone Biogeographic realms Terrestrial Afrotropical Antarctic Australasian Nearctic Palearctic Indomalayan Neotropical Oceanian Marine Arctic Temperate Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific Subdivisions Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions List of ecoregions Global 200 ecoregions See also Ecological land classification Floristic kingdoms Vegetation classifications Zoogeographic regions Retrieved from "https://en.