should more be done to protect and preserve endangered animals speech
This page has 644 persuasive speech topic ideas for college students. Use this list as a last resort: you are much more likely to be successful when you choose a topic that genuinely interests you, rather than merely picking one from a list. Talking about something you know well makes it much easier and fun! Our list is huge! It is by far the best list you will find online – both in terms of quantity and quality.
We add and remove ideas weekly to keep it up-to-date. Some persuasive speech ideas have been done to death. They are tired and stale, and are not likely to excite you or your audience (think abortion, gun control, smoking, same-sex marriage). If you can’t find one on our persuasive speech topic list or persuasive essay list that grabs you, consider a newer and fresher topic, something unique and original.
Many timely persuasive speech topics can be found on radio, TV, your local newspaper, or your Facebook and Twitter feeds. We also have Argumentative (which is a persuasive topic as well, just on a controversial issue) and Policy topics. If you know of a cool topic, please send it to us and we will publish it on a page with fresh topics. For persuasive essay topic ideas have a look at our list of Interesting Research Paper topics: these can be easily adapted for persuasive speeches.
List of Persuasive Speech Topics Crafting a persuasive speech or writing a persuasive essay begins with picking the right topic. A good persuasive speech topic is one that you can use to grab the audience’s attention, inform and persuade, and provide a strong persuasive argument for adopting your point of view. Animals Should more pets be adopted than bought from a breeder? Are pitbulls a vicious breed? Should a dog that has bitten somebody be executed? Should we tame wild animals like lions and sharks.
Should battery farming still be legal? Should ‘factory farming’ be banned? Adopting pets is the best choice. How do puppy mills affect us? The benefits of having pets. Why cats make the perfect pet. Why all kids should have pets. Why snakes are good pets. Have your pet spayed or neutered. Why you should own a horse. Why should you own a dog? We need to protect dolphins better. Wild animals should stay wild.
Why save endangered animals? People should be allowed to own exotic animals like tigers and monkeys. In order to save the orangutans, we should say “no” to palm oil. Automotive Should the public first learn how to drive a manual transmission before obtaining their license? Drivers should have to take three courses before getting a license. Should young children use booster seats in vehicles? Hands free cell phone use in cars should be promoted.
Should the driving age be 14? The danger of texting and driving. Watch out for animals when driving. Why police should not chase a car. Why you should buy a Japanese car. Why sports cars are dangerous. Driving tests should be free. Share the road with bikes. Business Advertising has tons of mind games. Advertising standards should be higher. The importance of understanding niche marketing. Constitutional Issues Do you think it would be fair for the government to detain suspected terrorists without proper trial? Should flag burning as a form of protest be prohibited? Should every day begin with a silent prayer at school? Why alcohol should be illegal.
Prayer in schools should not be mandatory. Easy and Simple People should not text while driving. Celebrities who break the law should receive stiffer penalties. Teachers should pass a basic exam every few years to renew their certification. Cities should offer free bike-sharing programs. People should eat less junk food. We should do more to end poverty and world hunger. We should value the elders in our society and learn from their wisdom.
Money can’t buy love or happiness. Children should be offered incentives for doing right, rather than punishment for wrongdoing. More recycling should be encouraged. Alternative power is the answer to our energy crisis. Economy Should products manufactured outside the U.S. come with an additional tax? Buy products that are made in the USA. Free trade agreements are bad for workers. The trade deficit with China is dangerous.
The minimum wage should be increased. Education Teachers should have to pass a test of basic skills every decade to renew their certifications. Should free college tuition should be offered to poor children? Would it be better to introduce a set of skills tests for students, before they graduate high school? Do you believe that students who are responsible for cyberbullying should be expelled from school? Would it be better if high school students completed community service hours to graduate? Do you think elementary and high school students should be allowed to use cell phones at school? Should students have to be on the honor roll in order to play sports? Art and music programs in public schools are an essential part of education.
Schools should have the right to search students’ personal property (backpacks, lockers, pockets) to fight drugs in schools. Do you think students should be allowed to listen to music during study hall? Should boys and girls have separate classrooms? Should schools sell soft drinks and candies to students? Should gym grades impact grade point average? Would it be better if schools with low test scores were closed? A psychological screening should be taken before you are admitted to college.
Do you think it should be legal for students to drop out before they turn 18? Should schools have a mandatory life skills class? Should state colleges be free? Should notebook computers replace textbooks? Why we should support education in developing countries. Do you believe students who fail their classes should repeat the grade? Should minority groups be given priority when applying to colleges? Why Americans should not have to learn a foreign language.
If you play a sport should you be required to take gym class? Why you should consider studying computer science. Universities should help students get a job after they graduate. Schools should teach both creationism and evolution. Should classes be based on periods of time or individual work? Do you think companies should be able to advertise in schools? Should students be able to go to the bathroom without asking? Should handwriting be taught in schools? Would it be better if schools started later in the morning? Do you think students should have open campus lunch breaks? Why we should be able to substitute study hall for a proper class.
Should students be able to listen to music during classes? Schools should take students abroad. Should teachers be over a certain age? Should the teaching of multiple languages be mandatory? Should schools be more technologically advanced? Music education should be a priority in schools. Should students join Greek life on campus? Financial aid shouldn’t be based on income. Should home economics be required in all schools? Should Chinese classes be mandatory for students? Should Spanish classes be mandatory for students? SAT scores should affect college acceptance.
Public schools are better than private schools. Should standardized testing be abolished? Studying abroad will benefit your future. Everyone has the right to education. Should students take the PARCC test? The importance of preparing children for kindergarten. Fifth graders should have study hall. The importance of higher education. We need more financial assistance for students. Don’t take education for granted.
The school year should be longer. Why anime has educational value. Why college isn’t for everyone. Should children have homework? Students have too much work. Take a year off from school. Expand school breakfast programs. Tenure for professors should be protected. Minority scholarships should be increased. Alternative education should be increased. Education in prisons should be increased. Accelerated learning options should be increased.
Educational costs should be lowered. Private schools should offer scholarships. School security needs to be improved. State lotteries should fund education. School violence can be prevented. Home schooling can be as high quality as going to school. Adult training programs should be improved. Every person should learn two or more languages. Is the oxford comma necessary? Environment Should there be stricter laws for protecting endangered species? Should only native plants be grown in gardens? More people should carpool or use public transportation.
Should the U.S. limit the use of natural resources? How pollution is negatively affecting humanity. We should use algae to make oil instead of drilling. Why hydraulic fracturing should be banned. Why we shouldn’t use disposable diapers. Hybrid cars are good for the environment. We should keep our community clean. The danger of ocean oil spills. Recycling should be mandatory. Why oil needs to be conserved.
Why we should use reusable bags. Why palm oil should be banned. Ban mining in environmentally sensitive areas. Disposable diapers are hazardous to the environment. Environment is more important than genetics in determining how a person will turn out. The danger of oil drilling in Alaska. Fishing regulations are necessary to preserve the environment. Endangered species need protection. We need to invest more in alternative fuels.
Endangered oceans deserve protection. We should strive for a paperless society. Conserve our global resources. Rain forests need to be protected. Ethics Do you think female construction workers should have the same salary as male construction workers? Should assisted suicide be legal for people who suffer from terminal illnesses? Do you think the death penalty is the best punishment for dangerous criminals? Should you base your perspective of people on stereotypes you have heard? Should product testing on animals or humans be allowed? Why you should not choose your child’s genetics.
Are people morally obligated to help the poor? Female genital mutilation should be stopped. Is it ethical to eat meat? Wearing fur is unethical. Family Should underaged people be allowed to consume alcohol at home, with parental permission? Should children 13 or younger be allowed to watch music videos or music channels like MTV? Do you think those older than 13 should be allowed into R-rated movies? Should teenagers be allowed to purchase violent video games? Is it appropriate for children to watch horror movies? Those under 16 should not be allowed to date.
Parental pressure on child actors and athletes is harmful. Why parents should not hit their children. Fairy tales are good for young children. Why kids should not play R rated games. Children should go to daycare. The importance of listening to your parents. Internet chat rooms are dangerous places for kids. Child abuse prevention efforts should be increased. Domestic abuse awareness should be increased.
Should parents lie to their children about Santa? Fashion Men should wear pink. Financial Why banks should ban hats and sunglasses to avoid robberies. Student loans should be forgiven. Reservation casinos are only beneficial if managed correctly. Food and Drink Genetically modified foods should be labeled. Do you believe companies who manufacture alcohol should be allowed to advertise on TV? Every child should learn to cook.
Cooking should be taught in schools. Should we donate unused food from supermarkets? The history of added sugar in our food. We should all grow our own vegetables. Eat more fruits and vegetables. The promise of genetically engineered food. Why peanuts are amazing. Drink more orange juice. Why people should cook. Farmers’ markets should be increased. Eating organic is good for your health. Get artificial hormones out of food.
Funny and Humorous Humour is a fabulous way to get people’s attention. Below are questions and statement topics that can be used to get your points across on a variety of topics. It is important to remember that there can be a fine line between funny and insulting. So use wit and make it fun without insulting your audience. This would be important to remember with a title like ‘The most dangerous animal out there is a silent woman’.
Blondes are not as dumb as they look. Why funny pick-up lines work. Guys gossip more than girls do. You should not be Facebook friends with your mom. If things go wrong, your horoscope is to blame. Students should not have to do a persuasive speech in front of a large audience. Millennials should stop wearing spandex yoga pants all the time. Dads are more fun than moms. Argumentative essays are pointless.
Shoes that don’t fit right are hazardous to your health. Government Do you believe there should be stricter federal restrictions regarding content on the internet? Should employers be required to post job opportunities on a government-run website? The government should provide shelter for the homeless. Should the state fund schools run by religions? Whose face should be printed on the newest bank note? Do you believe Puerto Rico should become a state? Our nation’s justice system needs to be improved.
Should the government have a say in our diets? The military budget must be decreased. Should people get drug tested for state aid? How policy works in local government. The government should increase funding of Amtrak. Fixing potholes should be a priority of local government. Eminent domain should be used rarely. The war on drugs is a failure. Zoning laws should be common sense. Health Female minors should be allowed to get birth control without telling their parents.
Should stem cell researchers be able to use cells from aborted babies to help cure diseases? Should doctors be allowed to prescribe contraception for girls under 16? Do you think it would be better if the USA had a universal health care system? Do you believe free condoms should be distributed in schools? Regular exercise will improve your health. Restaurants should post all ingredients to prevent allergic reactions.
Do you believe fast food should come with a warning label? The use of animals in medical research is a necessary evil. Seat belts ensure all passengers a safer ride. Why you should not work too hard when you’re diabetic. Why breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Fast food restaurants should offer healthier options. Do you think schools should teach sex education? Too much salt is bad for your health.
The amount of meat consumed should be reduced. People should care more about sleep. Rape and sexual assault prevention and awareness should be taught in schools. How drinking too much soda causes health problems. How junk food is unhealthy for our bodies. Why you should take a vacation every year. Is toothpaste bad for health? Do you think there is too much sugar in our diets? Drug advertisements should be prohibited.
Euthanasia could decrease suicide rates. We should use electroconvulsive therapy more. How to overcome stress. Stop putting steroids in animal food. Why you should become an organ donor. Why we should use homeopathic treatments. Why vaccines are beneficial. The dangers of sleepwalking. Are vaporizers bad for your health? Are e-cigs better than cigarettes? Diet pills are bad for your health. The importance of world Red Cross day.
Why you should be a blood donor. People need to drink more water. Healthy eating tips. Everyone should be taught CPR. The danger of secondhand smoke. Why exercise is good for you. Why obesity is a big problem. The importance of making healthy food cheaper. Is gluten really bad for us? The dangerous effects of drugs. Should doctors be paid less? Why you should not wear high heels. Why you should not go to tanning beds.
The cost of prescription drugs is too high. Smoking is bad for your health. Why you should take care of your teeth. Increase funding for medical research. Make more healthy choices. Why you should laugh every day. Wearing bike helmets should be encouraged. Cherish your friends. Alcoholics Anonymous deserves our support. Socialized medicine saves lives. Birth control pills should be more available.
We need more resources to prevent infectious diseases. Eat more dark chocolate. Positive thinking will benefit your health. Stomach stapling should be reserved for extreme situations. Chewing tobacco is dangerous. Seat belt laws help save lives. Food additives are dangerous. Breast feeding should be encouraged. Binge drinking awareness should be increased. Teen pregnancy prevention should be increased.
Teen suicide awareness should be increased. Fire safety awareness should be increased. Organ donation should be encouraged. Eat less meat and you will Iive longer. High School High school students should be allowed to have cell phones in school. High school students should not have to wear school uniforms. All high school students should learn a foreign language. Girls should be allowed to play on the boys’ sports teams.
High school students should be required to do community service. Extracurricular activities are important for your future. Students should be able to stay up late, even on school nights. Peer pressure helps students grow as individuals. Students should have healthy food options. Students should be paid for getting good grades. Schools should not raise money by selling unhealthy candy and soft drinks to students.
Music with foul language in it should not be allowed at school dances. Students should be able to listen to their MP3 players during class. Students who commit cyberbullying should be suspended or expelled from school. Boys and girls should be taught in separate classrooms. Home schooling produces better results than public schools. History Did the U.S. Army provide their soldiers drugs during the Vietnam war? African- American achievements should be celebrated.
Why Lincoln was the best President. Revisionist history is dangerous. The moon landing was a lie. International Relations Do you think it is time for the United States to suspend overseas military operations? The U.S. should cut off all foreign aid to dictatorships. Why you should volunteer in a developing country. Should Scotland be a country of its own? China will be the next superpower. Is any nation truly independent? Should women drive in Saudi Arabia? Foreign oil dependence is dangerous.
Weapons disarmament should be increased. The war in Iraq was a mistake. The United Nations is important in defusing international crises. Human rights should be advanced all over the world. Law Should those who are caught driving after consuming alcohol lose their driver’s license for one year? Should it be illegal to drive while talking on the phone? Should illegal music and movie downloads be prosecuted? Do you believe illegal immigrants should be allowed to apply for a driver’s license? Should motorcyclists have to wear a helmet? People over 65 should be required to take a bi-annual driver’s test.
Should the driving age be raised to 21? Should assault weapons be legal? Should known gang members be prohibited from public parks? Do you think it should be illegal for people to curse on TV during daytime? Should it be legal for people to own exotic pets such as tigers or chimps? Is the fast food industry legally accountable for obesity? Should the U.S. government add an extra tax for fatty snacks and junk food? Should it be legal to smoke in parks and other similar outdoor locations? Would you support English being the official language of the USA? Do you think abortions should be legal? Should the government declare gambling and sports betting illegal? Do you believe the government should recognize same-sex marriage? Do you believe that not wearing a seatbelt should be illegal? Would it be better if the voting age was lowered to thirteen? Should minors who commit serious crimes be charged as adults? Should people who play music too loud face fines? Bullying should be taken seriously and be illegal.
Should people who fail to recycle be obliged to pay a fine? Do you believe medicinal marijuana should be legalized? The age to be eligible for Social Security benefits should not exceed 62. Should abortions be considered illegal? Do you think immigration laws need to be revised? Why smoking should be illegal in public places. Why U.S. should have mandatory military service. Drunk driving laws don’t seem to be working.
Should homosexuals have marriage rights? Should a hunting license be necessary? Why we should have capital punishment. Child labor should be banned. Assisted suicide should be legal. Why we should legalize drugs. Lower the drinking age. Drinking and driving needs tougher laws. Gay marriage should be protected. Literature Why reading is more beneficial than watching television. Why it is a good idea to read Fifty Shades of Grey.
Why people need to read more books. Media Why it’s wrong for the media to promote a certain beauty standard. Is the media responsible for the moral degradation of teens? Do magazines marketed to teenagers send the wrong message? Why Disney should not be making Star Wars movies. Why you should study photography. Should certain T.V. shows have age restrictions? Why the media is to blame for eating disorders.
The media does not force us to worship false icons. Why the Russian should have beat Rocky. Television is harmful to children. Why comic books are good to read. Some TV shows are educational. Make TV more educational. We need more funding for public television and radio. Violence on television should be regulated. Cable TV monopolies destroy competition. Katniss Everdeen would alienate Harry Potter.
Music Why the french horn should be played more. Should schools allow uncensored songs at school dances? How listening to music could improve your day. Why music is beneficial to society. MP3 music should be free. National Security Are intensive security screenings essential for those who travel in airplanes? Negotiating with terrorists is sometimes justifiable. Should police carry firearms? Homosexuals belong in the military.
Women benefit the military in many ways. Should police carry toy guns? Politics Should it be legal for politicians to accept campaign contributions from corporate lobbyists? Why you should vote. Ban abusive language in elections. Why you should know Bernie Sanders. Term limits need to be respected. Practical Knowledge Basic survival skills are important to know. Basic camping skills everyone should know.
Personal hygiene is important for professional success. Psychology Intelligence depends more on the environment than genetics. Human development depends primarily on environmental factors. Why we should not see psychologists. Why do we need to love and to be loved? Can money give you happiness? Relationships Should young people have internet relationships? Men and women speak a different language of love.
Long distance relationships are possible. Why it is important to live together before marriage. Teens should live with their friends once a week. Religion Should public schools teach world religions? Students should be allowed to pray in school. Women should be priests. Religious conflict must be avoided. Why Islam is a peaceful religion. Islamic fundamentalism is not true Islam. Religious cults are dangerous.
Faith in God should be protected. Science Do you think the United States government should spend more on space programs? Why should we be aware of what is happening in outer space? Why Pluto should still be considered a planet. Mars was the same as Earth in the past. Why you should donate your body to science. We need more scientific advancements. Self-Help Art is a stress reliever and can reduce depression.
With hardwork and determination anyone can be successful. Why we should live life spontaneously. Improve your time management. Embarrassing moments make you stronger. Be true to yourself. Dress for success. How to continue your personal growth. The importance of self- confidence. If you don’t give up, you’ll make it. Society Should larger passengers be obliged to purchase two plane tickets, or two movie tickets? Should American families have no more than two children, in order to control population growth? Should property owners be obliged to clean the snow from sidewalks on their property? Should there be a cop in every bar to make sure people do not drink and drive? Do you believe that older people should receive free bus rides? Should all citizens of the USA complete one year of community service? Do you believe it is time for America to use the metric system? Why it should be mandatory for all students to stand for the pledge.
Do you believe that cities should provide free wireless internet? Why living in the country is better than the city. Why you should push people to try new things. No child should be considered a “lost cause”. We shouldn’t have to pay for internet access. Celebrities should have more privacy rights. Life is better now than it was 50 years ago. Why stereotypes are harmful. Why everyone should know about feminism.
Support the wounded warrior project. Should companies market to children? Prisoners should be allowed to vote. Are we doing enough to end poverty? Is Social Darwinism true? The USA has too many prisoners. Why we should have a three day weekend. How to fix harmful gender roles. Is trick or treating a bad thing? Should retirement homes be free? Public toilets should be cleaner. Generic products are just as good.
How bullying changes who you are. How bullying can lead to suicide. Societal beauty demands are harmful. The advantages of politeness. Why you should not shop at Walmart. Volunteering in your community. The need for affordable housing. Should we get longer holidays? The danger of propaganda. Too much money is a bad thing. We need free bus rides for seniors. We need better public transportation. The importance of volunteering.
Homeless people deserve a home. The importance of preventing cyber bullying. Donate money to charity. Raise the retirement age. We need to stop censorship. We need more foster parents. Why everyone is equal. Single parent families need help. Mandatory sentencing weakened communities. Corporate corruption weakens the country. The pledge of allegiance should not be mandatory. Shop at local stores. Buy security alarms.
We need more prison alternatives. Frivolous lawsuits hurt the country. We need more affirmative action. More resources should be devoted to fight poverty. Bar closing hours should be later. Police corruption needs to be stopped. Stay at home moms deserve more respect. Women’s pay rates should be equal to men’s. Cosmetic surgery should be highly regulated. We need to care for our aging population.
Racial profiling needs to be stopped. Privacy rights must be respected. Women’s rights must be advanced. Race relations need to be improved. Columbus day should be eliminated. Gun control saves lives. Media bias is harming our country. Are beauty contests harmful? Sport Should some musical groups, such as marching band and show choir, be considered a sport? Do you think cities should have a bike sharing system? Should college athletes be paid? Why baseball players should take drug tests before playing.
High school football programs should receive less funding. Female sports should be given equal coverage by the media. Should drug tests be mandatory for professional athletes? Should athletes be paid less? Should drug tests be mandatory for school athletes? Winning is not as important as trying your best. Should sports teams be named after ethnic groups? Should cheerleading be considered a sport? Why we should not cheer for the Redskins.
Why sports should be encouraged. Why take a sailing vacation? Learning to swim should be a requirement. Public funding of sports stadiums is a bad idea. Boxing should have stricter rules to keep boxers safe. Why you should become a swimmer. Why people should dance more. Athletics are too much a priority in schools. Is NASCAR a sport? Should FIFA have price ranges? Technology Google and other search engines will be the death of libraries.
Make sure to backup your computer files several times a day. What kind of influence will technology have on our future? Printing photos is better than keeping them on a computer. Do you believe internet censorship is inappropriate? Should nuclear power be used? How technology will change our lives. Should screen time also be limited for adults? Why the government should regulate technology. Technology is making people less creative.
Technology has made life better. Why Microsoft Word products should be free. Why you should not buy an iPhone. We are addicted to the internet. Put down your phone and connect with people. Electronics are making kids lazy. How does a search engine work? Apple music should be free. The importance of the internet. Internet gambling needs more regulation. Computer literacy should be increased. The importance of internet fraud awareness.
Why selfies are a thing of the past. Travel Why you should go to Bermuda. Why airline tickets should be cheaper. Traveling makes you more open minded. Workplace Should large corporations hire a number of minorities that are proportionate to the population? Do you think 14 year olds should be allowed to hold jobs? Why you should choose a high paying job over a fun job. Why everyone should work retail once in their life.
Tipping should be mandatory in restaurants. Women make better managers than men. The importance of office parties. Labor unions should be protected.See Also: Animal Jam Beta Days
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Endangered Species Act of 1973 Other short titles Endangered Species Act of 1973 Long title An Act to provide for the conservation of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants, and for other purposes. Acronyms (colloquial) ESA Nicknames Endangered Species Conservation Act Enacted by the 93rd United States Congress Effective December 27, 1973 Citations Public law 93–205 Statutes at Large 87 Stat.
884 Codification Titles amended 16 U.S.C.: Conservation U.S.C. sections created 16 U.S.C. ch. 35 § 1531 et seq. Legislative history Introduced in the Senate as S. 1983 by Harrison A. Williams (D–NJ) on June 12, 1973 Committee consideration by Senate Commerce Committee Passed the Senate on July 24, 1973 (92–0) Passed the House on September 18, 1973 (390-12, in lieu of H.R. 37) Reported by the joint conference committee on December 19, 1973; agreed to by the Senate on December 19, 1973 (agreed) and by the House on December 20, 1973 (355–4) Signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973 Major amendments Pub.
L. 95–632, 92 Stat. 3751, enacted November 10, 1978 Pub.L. 96–159, 93 Stat. 1225, enacted December 28, 1979 Pub.L. 97–304, 96 Stat. 1411, enacted October 13, 1982 United States Supreme Court cases Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555 (1992)Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill, 437 U.S. 153 (1978) The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
 Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973. The U.S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost.
" The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the Commerce Department's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Listing status U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing status and its abbreviations used in Federal Register and by federal agencies like the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: E = endangered (Sec.3.6, Sec.4.
a ) – any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range other than a species of the Class Insecta determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest. T = threatened (Sec.3.20, Sec.4.a ) – any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range Other categories: C = candidate (Sec.
4.b.3 ) – a species under consideration for official listing E(S/A), T(S/A) = endangered or threatened due to similarity of appearance (Sec.4.e ) – a species not endangered or threatened, but so closely resembles in appearance a species which has been listed as endangered or threatened, that enforcement personnel would have substantial difficulty in attempting to differentiate between the listed and unlisted species.
XE, XN = experimental essential or non-essential population (Sec.10.j ) – any population (including eggs, propagules, or individuals) of an endangered species or a threatened species released outside the current range under authorization of the Secretary. Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species are treated as threatened species on public land, for consultation purposes, and as species proposed for listing on private land.
History The near-extinction of the bison and the disappearance of the passenger pigeon helped drive the call for wildlife conservation starting in the 1900s. Ornithologist George Bird Grinnell wrote articles on the subject in the magazine Forest and Stream, while Joel Asaph Allen, founder of the American Ornithologists' Union, hammered away in the popular press. The public was introduced to a new concept: extinction.
Whooping crane Market hunting for the millinery trade and for the table was one aspect of the problem. The early naturalists also killed birds and other wildlife for study, personal curio collections and museum pieces. While habitat losses continued as communities and farmland grew, the widespread use of pesticides and the introduction of non-native species also affected wildlife. One species in particular received widespread attention—the whooping crane.
The species' historical range extended from central Canada south to Mexico, and from Utah to the Atlantic coast. Unregulated hunting and habitat loss contributed to a steady decline in the whooping crane population until, by 1890, it had disappeared from its primary breeding range in the north central United States. It would be another eight years before the first national law regulating wildlife commerce was signed, and another two years before the first version of the endangered species act was passed.
The whooping crane population by 1941 was estimated at about only 16 birds still in the wild. The Lacey Act of 1900 was the first federal law that regulated commercial animal markets. It prohibited interstate commerce of animals killed in violation of state game laws, and covered all fish and wildlife and their parts or products, as well as plants. Other legislation followed, including the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929, a 1937 treaty prohibiting the hunting of right and gray whales, and the Bald Eagle Protection Act of 1940.
These later laws had a low cost to society–the species were relatively rare–and little opposition was raised. Whereas the Lacey Act dealt with game animal management and market commerce species, a major shift in focus occurred by 1963 to habitat preservation instead of take regulations. A provision was added by Congress in the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 that provided money for the "acquisition of land, waters.
..for the preservation of species of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction." Act of 1966 The predecessor of the ESA was the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 (P.L. 89-669 ). Passed by Congress, this act permitted the listing of native U.S. animal species as endangered and for limited protections upon those animals. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to list endangered domestic fish and wildlife and allowed the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to spend up to $15 million per year to buy habitats for listed species.
It also directed federal land agencies to preserve habitat on their lands. The Act also consolidated and even expanded authority for the Secretary of the Interior to manage and administer the National Wildlife Refuge System. Other public agencies were encouraged, but not required, to protect species. The act did not address the commerce in endangered species and parts. In March, 1967 the first list of endangered species was issued under the act.
It included 14 mammals, 36 birds, 6 reptiles and amphibians and 22 fish. This first list is referred to as the "Class of '67" in The Endangered Species Act at Thirty, Volume 1, which concludes that habitat destruction, the biggest threat to those 78 species, is still the same threat to the currently listed species. It included only vertebrates because the Department of Interior's definition of "fish and wildlife" was limited to vertebrates.
 However, with time, researchers noticed that the animals on the endangered species list still were not getting enough protection, thus further threatening their extinction. The endangered species program was expanded by the Endangered Species Act of 1969. Amendment of 1969 Main article: Endangered Species Act of 1969 The Endangered Species Conservation Act (P. L. 91–135), passed in December, 1969, amended the original law to provide additional protection to species in danger of "worldwide extinction" by prohibiting their importation and subsequent sale in the United States.
It expanded the Lacey Act's ban on interstate commerce to include mammals, reptiles, amphibians, mollusks and crustaceans. Reptiles were added mainly to reduce the rampant poaching of alligators and crocodiles. This law was the first time that invertebrates were included for protection. The amendment called for an international meeting to adopt a convention or treaty to conserve endangered species.
That meeting was held in Washington, D.C., in February, 1973 and produced the comprehensive multilateral treaty known as CITES or Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Endangered Species Act President Richard Nixon declared current species conservation efforts to be inadequate and called on the 93rd United States Congress to pass comprehensive endangered species legislation.
 Congress responded with a completely rewritten law, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which was signed by Nixon on December 28, 1973 (Pub.L. 93–205). It was written by a team of lawyers and scientists, including Dr. Russell E. Train, the first appointed head of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), an outgrowth of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Dr. Train was assisted by a core group of staffers, including Dr.
Earl Baysinger at EPA, Dick Gutting, and Dr. Gerard A. "Jerry" Bertrand, a marine biologist by training, who had transferred from his post as the Scientific Adviser to the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, office of the Commandant of the Corps, to join the newly formed White House office. The staff, under Dr. Train's leadership, incorporated dozens of new principles and ideas into the landmark legislation, crafting a document that completely changed the direction of environmental conservation in the United States.
Dr. Bertrand is credited with writing the most challenged section of the Act, the "takings" clause – Section 2. The stated purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to protect species and also "the ecosystems upon which they depend." California historian Kevin Starr was more emphatic when he said: "The Endangered Species Act of 1982 is the Magna Carta of the environmental movement." The ESA is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (which includes the National Marine Fisheries Service, or NMFS).
NOAA handles marine species, and the FWS has responsibility over freshwater fish and all other species. Species that occur in both habitats (e.g. sea turtles and Atlantic sturgeon) are jointly managed. In March 2008, The Washington Post reported that documents showed that the Bush Administration, beginning in 2001, had erected "pervasive bureaucratic obstacles" that limited the number of species protected under the act: From 2000 to 2003, until a U.
S. District Court overturned the decision, Fish and Wildlife Service officials said that if that agency identified a species as a candidate for the list, citizens could not file petitions for that species. Interior Department personnel were told they could use "info from files that refutes petitions but not anything that supports" petitions filed to protect species. Senior department officials revised a longstanding policy that rated the threat to various species based primarily on their populations within U.
S. borders, giving more weight to populations in Canada and Mexico, countries with less extensive regulations than the U.S. Officials changed the way species were evaluated under the act by considering where the species currently lived, rather than where they used to exist. Senior officials repeatedly dismissed the views of scientific advisers who said that species should be protected. In 2014, the House of Representatives passed the 21st Century Endangered Species Transparency Act, which would require the government to disclose the data it uses to determine species classification, but the President threatened a veto and the bill is unlikely to pass the Senate.
 Preventing extinction The ESA's primary goal is to prevent the extinction of imperiled plant and animal life, and secondly, to recover and maintain those populations by removing or lessening threats to their survival. Petition and listing To be considered for listing, the species must meet one of five criteria (section 4(a)(1)): 1. There is the present or threatened destruction, modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range.
2. An over utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes. 3. The species is declining due to disease or predation. 4. There is an inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms. 5. There are other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. Potential candidate species are then prioritized, with "emergency listing" given the highest priority. Species that face a "significant risk to their well being" are in this category.
 A species can be listed in two ways. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or NOAA Fisheries (also called the National Marine Fisheries Service) can directly list a species through its candidate assessment program, or an individual or organizational petition may request that the FWS or NMFS list a species. A "species" under the act can be a true taxonomic species, a subspecies, or in the case of vertebrates, a "distinct population segment.
" The procedures are the same for both types except with the person/organization petition, there is a 90-day screening period. During the listing process, economic factors cannot be considered, but must be " based solely on the best scientific and commercial data available." The 1982 amendment to the ESA added the word "solely" to prevent any consideration other than the biological status of the species.
Congress rejected President Ronald Reagan's Executive Order 12291 which required economic analysis of all government agency actions. The House committee's statement was "that economic considerations have no relevance to determinations regarding the status of species." The very opposite result happened with the 1978 amendment where Congress added the words "...taking into consideration the economic impact.
.." in the provision on critical habitat designation. The 1978 amendment linked the listing procedure with critical habitat designation and economic considerations, which almost completely halted new listings, with almost 2,000 species being withdrawn from consideration. Listing process After receiving a petition to list a species, the two federal agencies take the following steps, or rulemaking procedures, with each step being published in the Federal Register, the US government's official journal of proposed or adopted rules and regulations: 1.
If a petition presents information that the species may be imperiled, a screening period of 90 days begins (interested persons and/or organization petitions only). If the petition does not present substantial information to support listing, it is denied. 2. If the information is substantial, a status review is started, which is a comprehensive assessment of a species' biological status and threats, with a result of : "warranted", "not warranted," or "warranted but precluded.
" A finding of not warranted, the listing process ends. Warranted finding means the agencies publish a 12-month finding (a proposed rule) within one year of the date of the petition, proposing to list the species as threatened or endangered. Comments are solicited from the public, and one or more public hearings may be held. Three expert opinions from appropriate and independent specialists may be included, but this is voluntary.
A "warranted but precluded" finding is automatically recycled back through the 12-month process indefinitely until a result of either "not warranted" or "warranted" is determined. The agencies monitor the status of any "warranted but precluded" species. Essentially the "warranted but precluded" finding is a deferral added by the 1982 amendment to the ESA. It means other, higher-priority actions will take precedence.
 For example, an emergency listing of a rare plant growing in a wetland that is scheduled to be filled in for housing construction would be a "higher-priority". 3. Within another year, a final determination (a final rule) must be made on whether to list the species. The final rule time limit may be extended for 6 months and listings may be grouped together according to similar geography, threats, habitat or taxonomy.
The annual rate of listing (i.e., classifying species as "threatened" or "endangered") increased steadily from the Ford administration (47 listings, 15 per year) through Carter (126 listings, 32 per year), Reagan (255 listings, 32 per year), George H. W. Bush (231 listings, 58 per year), and Clinton (521 listings, 65 per year) before decline to its lowest rate under George W. Bush (60 listings, 8 per year as of 5/24/08).
 The rate of listing is strongly correlated with citizen involvement and mandatory timelines: as agency discretion decreases and citizen involvement increases (i.e. filing of petitions and lawsuits) the rate of listing increases. Citizen involvement has been shown to identify species not moving through the process efficiently, and identify more imperiled species. The longer species are listed, the more likely they are to be classified as recovering by the FWS.
 Public notice, comments and judicial review Public notice is given through legal notices in newspapers, and communicated to state and county agencies within the species' area. Foreign nations may also receive notice of a listing. A public hearing is mandatory if any person has requested one within 45 days of the published notice. "The purpose of the notice and comment requirement is to provide for meaningful public participation in the rulemaking process.
" summarized the Ninth Circuit court in the case of Idaho Farm Bureau Federation v. Babbitt. Species survival and recovery Critical habitat The provision of the law in Section 4 that establishes critical habitat is a regulatory link between habitat protection and recovery goals, requiring the identification and protection of all lands, water and air necessary to recover endangered species. To determine what exactly is critical habitat, the needs of open space for individual and population growth, food, water, light or other nutritional requirements, breeding sites, seed germination and dispersal needs, and lack of disturbances are considered.
 As habitat loss is the primary threat to most imperiled species, the Endangered Species Act of 1973 allowed the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to designate specific areas as protected "critical habitat" zones. In 1978, Congress amended the law to make critical habitat designation a mandatory requirement for all threatened and endangered species. The amendment also added economics into the process of determining habitat: ".
..shall designate critical habitat... on the basis of the best scientific data available and after taking into consideration the economic impact, and any other impact, of specifying... area as critical habitat." The congressional report on the 1978 amendment described the conflict between the new Section 4 additions and the rest of the law: "... the critical habitat provision is a startling section which is wholly inconsistent with the rest of the legislation.
It constitutes a loophole which could readily be abused by any Secretary ... who is vulnerable to political pressure or who is not sympathetic to the basic purposes of the Endangered Species Act."-- House of Representatives Report 95-1625, at 69 (1978) The amendment of 1978 added economic considerations and the 1982 amendment prevented economic considerations. Several studies on the effect of critical habitat designation on species' recovery rates have been done between 1997 and 2003.
Although it has been criticized, the Taylor study in 2003 found that, "species with critical habitat were... twice as likely to be improving...." Critical habitats are required to contain "all areas essential to the conservation" of the imperiled species, and may be on private or public lands. The Fish and Wildlife Service has a policy limiting designation to lands and waters within the U.
S. and both federal agencies may exclude essential areas if they determine that economic or other costs exceed the benefit. The ESA is mute about how such costs and benefits are to be determined. All federal agencies are prohibited from authorizing, funding or carrying out actions that "destroy or adversely modify" critical habitats (Section 7(a) (2)). While the regulatory aspect of critical habitat does not apply directly to private and other non-federal landowners, large-scale development, logging and mining projects on private and state land typically require a federal permit and thus become subject to critical habitat regulations.
Outside or in parallel with regulatory processes, critical habitats also focus and encourage voluntary actions such as land purchases, grant making, restoration, and establishment of reserves. The ESA requires that critical habitat be designated at the time of or within one year of a species being placed on the endangered list. In practice, most designations occur several years after listing. Between 1978 and 1986 the FWS regularly designated critical habitat.
In 1986 the Reagan Administration issued a regulation limiting the protective status of critical habitat. As a result, few critical habitats were designated between 1986 and the late 1990s. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, a series of court orders invalidated the Reagan regulations and forced the FWS and NMFS to designate several hundred critical habitats, especially in Hawaii, California and other western states.
Midwest and Eastern states received less critical habitat, primarily on rivers and coastlines. As of December, 2006, the Reagan regulation has not yet been replaced though its use has been suspended. Nonetheless, the agencies have generally changed course and since about 2005 have tried to designate critical habitat at or near the time of listing. Most provisions of the ESA revolve around preventing extinction.
Critical habitat is one of the few that focus on recovery. Species with critical habitat are twice as likely to be recovering as species without critical habitat. Plans, permits, and agreements The combined result of the amendments to the Endangered Species Act have created a law vastly different from the ESA of 1973. It is now a flexible, permitting statute. For example, the law now permits "incidental takes" (accidental killing or harming a listed species).
Congress added the requirements for "incidental take statement", and authorized a "incidental take permit" in conjunction with "habitat conservation plans". More changes were made in the 1990s in an attempt by Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt to shield the ESA from a Congress hostile to the law. He instituted incentive-based strategies such as candidate conservation agreements and "safe harbor" agreements that would balance the goals of economic development and conservation.
Recovery plan Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) are required to create an Endangered Species Recovery Plan outlining the goals, tasks required, likely costs, and estimated timeline to recover endangered species (i.e., increase their numbers and improve their management to the point where they can be removed from the endangered list). The ESA does not specify when a recovery plan must be completed.
The FWS has a policy specifying completion within three years of the species being listed, but the average time to completion is approximately six years. The annual rate of recovery plan completion increased steadily from the Ford administration (4) through Carter (9), Reagan (30), Bush I (44), and Clinton (72), but declined under Bush II (16 per year as of 9/1/06). The goal of the law is to make itself unnecessary, and recovery plans are a means toward that goal.
 Recovery plans became more specific after 1988 when Congress added provisions to Section 4(f) of the law that spelled out the minimum contents of a recovery plan. Three types of information must be included: A description of "site-specific" management actions to make the plan as explicit as possible. The "objective, measurable criteria" to serve as a baseline for judging when and how well a species is recovering.
An estimate of money and resources needed to achieve the goal of recovery and delisting. The amendment also added public participation to the process. There is a ranking order, similar to the listing procedures, for recovery plans, with the highest priority being for species most likely to benefit from recovery plans, especially when the threat is from construction, or other developmental or economic activity.
 Recovery plans cover domestic and migratory species. Exemptions Exemptions can and do occur. The ESA requires federal agencies to consult with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) if any project occurs in the habitat of a listed species. An example of such a project might be a timber harvest proposed by the US Forest Service. If the timber harvest could impact a listed species, a biological assessment is prepared by the Forest Service and reviewed by the FWS or NMFS or both.
The question to be answered is whether a listed species will be harmed by the action and, if so, how the harm can be minimized. If harm cannot be avoided, the project agency can seek an exemption from the Endangered Species Committee, an ad hoc panel composed of members from the executive branch and at least one appointee from the state where the project is to occur. Five of the seven committee members must vote for the exemption to allow taking (to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or significant habitat modification, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct) of listed species.
 Long before the exemption is considered by the Endangered Species Committee, the Forest Service, and either the FWS or the NMFS will have consulted on the biological implications of the timber harvest. The consultation can be informal, to determine if harm may occur; and then formal if the harm is believed to be likely. The questions to be answered in these consultations are whether the species will be harmed, whether the habitat will be harmed and if the action will aid or hinder the recovery of the listed species.
 Northern spotted owl If harm is likely to occur, the consultation evaluates whether "reasonable and prudent alternatives" exist to minimize harm. If an alternative does not exist, the FWS or NMFS will issue an opinion that the action constitutes "jeopardy" to the listed species either directly or indirectly. The project cannot then occur unless exempted by the Endangered Species Committee.
The Committee must make a decision on the exemption within 30 days, when its findings are published in the Federal Register. The findings can be challenged in federal court. In 1992, one such challenge was the case of Portland Audubon Society v. Endangered Species Committee heard in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. The court found that three members had been in illegal ex parte contact with the then-President George H.
W. Bush, a violation of the Administrative Procedures Act. The committee's exemption was for the Bureau of Land Management's timber sale and "incidental takes" of the endangered northern spotted owl in Oregon. There have been six instances as of 2009 in which the exemption process was initiated. Of these six, one was granted, one was partially granted, one was denied and three were withdrawn. Donald Baur, in The Endangered Species Act: law, policy, and perspectives, concluded," .
.. the exemption provision is basically a nonfactor in the administration of the ESA. A major reason, of course, is that so few consultations result in jeopardy opinions, and those that do almost always result in the identification of reasonable and prudent alternatives to avoid jeopardy." Habitat Conservation Plans More than half of habitat for listed species is on non-federal property, owned by citizens, states, local governments, tribal governments and private organizations.
 Before the law was amended in 1982, a listed species could be taken only for scientific or research purposes. The amendment created a permit process to circumvent the take prohibition called a Habitat Conservation Plan or HCP to give incentives to non-federal land managers and private landowners to help protect listed and unlisted species, while allowing economic development that may harm ("take") the species.
The US Fish and Wildlife Service defines the process as: "The purpose of the habitat conservation planning process associated with the permit is to ensure there is adequate minimizing and mitigating of the effects of the authorized incidental take. The purpose of the incidental take permit is to authorize the incidental take of a listed species, not to authorize the activities that result in take.
"  The person or organization submits a HCP and if approved by the agency (FWS or NMFS), will be issued an Incidental Take Permit (ITP) which allows a certain number of "takes" of the listed species. The permit may be revoked at any time and can allow incidental takes for varying amounts of time. For instance, the San Bruno Habitat Conservation Plan/ Incidental Take Permit is good for 30 years and the Wal-Mart store (in Florida) permit expires after one year.
Because the permit is issued by a federal agency to a private party, it is a federal action-which means other federal laws can apply, such as the National Environmental Policy Act or NEPA. A notice of the permit application action is published in the Federal Register and a public comment period of 30 to 90 days begins. The US Congress was urged to create the exemption by proponents of a conservation plan on San Bruno Mountain, California that was drafted in the early 1980s and is the first HCP in the nation.
In the conference report on the 1982 amendments, Congress specified that it intended the San Bruno plan to act "as a model" for future conservation plans developed under the incidental take exemption provision and that "the adequacy of similar conservation plans should be measured against the San Bruno plan". Congress further noted that the San Bruno plan was based on "an independent exhaustive biological study" and protected at least 87% of the habitat of the listed butterflies that led to the development of the HCP.
 Growing scientific recognition of the role of private lands for endangered species recovery and the landmark 1981 court decision in Palila v. Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources both contributed to making Habitat Conservation Plans/ Incidental Take Permits "a major force for wildlife conservation and a major headache to the development community", wrote Robert D.Thornton in the 1991 Environmental Law article, Searching for Consensus and Predictability: Habitat Conservation Planning under the Endangered Species Act of 1973.
 "No Surprises" rule The "No Surprises" rule is meant to protect the landowner if "unforeseen circumstances" occur which make the landowner's efforts to prevent or mitigate harm to the species fall short. The "No Surprises" policy may be the most controversial of the recent reforms of the law, because once an Incidental Take Permit is granted, the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) loses much ability to further protect a species if the mitigation measures by the landowner prove insufficient.
The landowner or permittee would not be required to set aside additional land or pay more in conservation money. The federal government would have to pay for additional protection measures. "Safe Harbor" agreements The "Safe Harbor" agreement is a voluntary agreement between the private landowner and FWS. The landowner agrees to alter the property to benefit or even attract a listed or proposed species in exchange for assurances that the FWS will permit future "takes" above a pre-determined level.
The policy relies on the "enhancement of survival" provision of Section §1539(a)(1)(A). A landowner can have either a "Safe Harbor" agreement or an Incidental Take Permit, or both. The policy was developed by the Clinton Administration in 1999. Candidate Conservation Agreements The Candidate Conservation Agreement is closely related to the "Safe Harbor" agreement, the main difference is that the Candidate Conservation Agreements With Assurances(CCA) are meant to protect unlisted species by providing incentives to private landowners and land managing agencies to restore, enhance or maintain habitat of unlisted species which are declining and have the potential to become threatened or endangered if critical habitat is not protected.
The FWS will then assure that if, in the future the unlisted species becomes listed, the landowner will not be required to do more than already agreed upon in the CCA. Experimental Populations The Experimental Population Provision encourages introductions of species into formerly occupied or new habitat without the full range of legal restrictions for endangered species. The provision was added to the act in 1982 to encourage landowner support for species survival and recovery.
Experimental populations could be used for the assisted migration of endangered species. Delisting Northern flying squirrel To delist species, several factors are considered: the threats are eliminated or controlled, population size and growth, and the stability of habitat quality and quantity. Also, over a dozen species have been delisted due to inaccurate data putting them on the list in the first place.
There is also "downlisting" of a species where some of the threats have been controlled and the population has met recovery objectives, then the species can be reclassified to "threatened" from "endangered" Two examples of animal species recently delisted are: the Virginia northern flying squirrel (subspecies) on August, 2008, which had been listed since 1985, and the gray wolf (Northern Rocky Mountain DPS).
On April 15, 2011, President Obama signed the Department of Defense and Full-Year Appropriations Act of 2011. A section of that Appropriations Act directed the Secretary of the Interior to reissue within 60 days of enactment the final rule published on April 2, 2009, that identified the Northern Rocky Mountain population of gray wolf (Canis lupus) as a distinct population segment (DPS) and to revise the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife by removing most of the gray wolves in the DPS.
The US Fish and Wildlife Service's delisting report lists four plants that have recovered: Eggert's sunflower (Helianthus eggertii) Robbins' cinquefoil (Potentilla robbinsiana), an alpine wildflower found only in the White Mountains of New Hampshire Maguire daisy (Erigeron maguirei) Tennessee purple coneflower (Echinacea tennesseensis) Effectiveness Positive effects As of September 2012, fifty-six species have been delisted; twenty-eight due to recovery, ten due to extinction (seven of which are believed to have been extinct prior to being listed), ten due to changes in taxonomic classification practices, six due to discovery of new populations, one due to an error in the listing rule, and one due to an amendment to the Endangered Species Act specifically requiring the species delisting.
 Twenty-five others have been down listed from "endangered" to "threatened" status. Some have argued that the recovery of DDT-threatened species such as the bald eagle, brown pelican and peregrine falcon should be attributed to the 1972 ban on DDT by the EPA. rather than the Endangered Species Act, however, the listing of these species as endangered was a substantial cause of Congress instituting the ban and many non-DDT oriented actions were taken on their behalf under the Endangered Species Act (i.
e. captive breeding, habitat protection, and protection from disturbance). As of October 28, 2012, there are 2,052 total (foreign and domestic) species on the threatened and endangered lists. However, many species have become extinct while on the candidate list or otherwise under consideration for listing. Key deer Species which increased in population size since being placed on the endangered list include: Bald eagle (increased from 417 to 11,040 pairs between 1963 and 2007); removed from list 2007 Whooping crane (increased from 54 to 436 birds between 1967 and 2003) Kirtland's warbler (increased from 210 to 1,415 pairs between 1971 and 2005) Peregrine falcon (increased from 324 to 1,700 pairs between 1975 and 2000); removed from list 1999 Gray wolf (populations increased dramatically in the Northern Rockies and Western Great Lakes States) Mexican wolf (increased to minimum population of 109 wolves in 2014 in southwest New Mexico and southeast Arizona) Red wolf (increased from 17 in 1980 to 257 in 2003) Gray whale (increased from 13,095 to 26,635 whales between 1968 and 1998); removed from list (Debated because whaling was banned before the ESA was set in place and that the ESA had nothing to do with the natural population increase since the cease of massive whaling [excluding Native American tribal whaling]) Grizzly bear (increased from about 271 to over 580 bears in the Yellowstone area between 1975 and 2005); removed from list March 22, 2007 California’s southern sea otter (increased from 1,789 in 1976 to 2,735 in 2005) San Clemente Indian paintbrush (increased from 500 plants in 1979 to more than 3,500 in 1997) Florida's Key deer (increased from 200 in 1971 to 750 in 2001) Big Bend gambusia (increased from a couple dozen to a population of over 50,000) Hawaiian goose (increased from 400 birds in 1980 to 1,275 in 2003) Virginia big-eared bat (increased from 3,500 in 1979 to 18,442 in 2004) Black-footed ferret (increased from 18 in 1986 to 600 in 2006) Criticism Opponents of the Endangered Species Act argue that with over 2,000 endangered species listed, and only 28 delisted due to recovery, the success rate of 1% over nearly three decades proves that there needs to be serious reform in their methods to actually help the endangered animals and plants.
Others argue that the ESA may encourage preemptive habitat destruction by landowners who fear losing the use of their land because of the presence of an endangered species; known colloquially as "Shoot, Shovel and Shut-Up." One example of such perverse incentives is the case of a forest owner who, in response to ESA listing of the red-cockaded woodpecker, increased harvesting and shortened the age at which he harvests his trees to ensure that they do not become old enough to become suitable habitat.
 While no studies have shown that the Act's negative effects, in total, exceed the positive effects, many economists believe that finding a way to reduce such perverse incentives would lead to more effective protection of endangered species. According to research published in 1999 by Alan Green and the Center for Public Integrity (CPI), loopholes in the ESA are commonly exploited in the exotic pet trade.
Although the legislation prohibits interstate and foreign transactions for list species, no provisions are made for in-state commerce, allowing these animals to be sold to roadside zoos and private collectors. Additionally, the ESA allows listed species to be shipped across state lines as long as they are not sold. According to Green and the CPI, this allows dealers to "donate" listed species through supposed "breeding loans" to anyone, and in return they can legally receive a reciprocal monetary "donation" from the receiving party.
 Furthermore, an interview with an endangered species specialist at the US Fish and Wildlife Service revealed that the agency does not have sufficient staff to perform undercover investigations, which would catch these false "donations" and other mislabeled transactions. Green and the CPI further noted another exploit of the ESA in their discussion of the critically endangered cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus).
Not only had they found documentation that 151 of these primates had inadvertently made their way from the Harvard-affiliated New England Regional Primate Research Center into the exotic pet trade through the aforementioned loophole, but in October 1976, over 800 cotton-top tamarins were imported into the United States in order to beat the official listing of the species under the ESA. State endangered species lists Section 6 of the Endangered Species Act provided funding for development of programs for management of threatened and endangered species by state wildlife agencies.
 Subsequently, lists of endangered and threatened species within their boundaries have been prepared by each state. These state lists often include species which are considered endangered or threatened within a specific state but not within all states, and which therefore are not included on the national list of endangered and threatened species. Examples include Florida, Minnesota, Maine, Penalties There are different degrees of violation with the law.
The most punishable offenses are trafficking, and any act of knowingly "taking" (which includes harming, wounding, or killing) an endangered species. The penalties for these violations can be a maximum fine of up to $50,000 or imprisonment for one year, or both, and civil penalties of up to $25,000 per violation may be assessed. Lists of violations and exact fines are available through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration web-site.
 One provision of this law is that no penalty may be imposed if, by a preponderance of the evidence that the act was in self-defense. The law also eliminates criminal penalties for accidentally killing listed species during farming and ranching activities. In addition to fines or imprisonment, a license, permit, or other agreement issued by a federal agency that authorized an individual to import or export fish, wildlife, or plants may be revoked, suspended or modified.
Any federal hunting or fishing permits that were issued to a person who violates the ESA can be canceled or suspended for up to a year. Use of money received through violations of the ESA A reward will be paid to any person who furnishes information which leads to an arrest, conviction, or revocation of a license, so long as they are not a local, state, or federal employee in the performance of official duties.
The Secretary may also provide reasonable and necessary costs incurred for the care of fish, wildlife, and forest service or plant pending the violation caused by the criminal. If the balance ever exceeds $500,000 the Secretary of the Treasury is required to deposit an amount equal to the excess into the cooperative endangered species conservation fund. See also Critical habitat Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1978 List of endangered species in North America Tennessee Valley Authority v.
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Biological Conservation. 201: 220–229. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.005. ^ Brosi, Berry J.; Biber, Eric G. N. (2012). "Citizen Involvement in the U.S. Endangered Species Act". Science. 337 (6096): 802–803. doi:10.1126/science.1220660. PMID 22903999. ^ a b Taylor, M. T.; K. S. Suckling & R. R. Rachlinski (2005). "The effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act: A quantitative analysis". BioScience.
55 (4): 360–367. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0360:TEOTES]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0006-3568. ^ U.S.C 1533(b)(5)(A)-(E) ^ Stanford p 50 ^ ESA at Thirty p89 ^ Stanford pp61–4 ^ Stanford p.68 ^ "U.S. Endangered Species Act Works, Study Finds". ^ Center for Biological Diversity, authors K.F. Suckling, J.R. Rachlinski ^ Stanford p86 ^ a b Suckling, Kieran; M. Taylor (2006). "Critical Habitat Recovery". In D.
D. Goble; J.M. Scott; F.W. Davis. The Endangered Species Act at 30: Vol. 1: Renewing the Conservation Promise. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. p. 77. ^ ESA at 30, p10 ^ The ESA does allow FWS and NMFS to forgo a recovery plan by declaring it will not benefit the species, but this provision has rarely been invoked. It was most famously used to deny a recovery plan to the northern spotted owl in 1991, but in 2006 the FWS changed course and announced it would complete a plan for the species.
^ a b 16 U.S.C. §1533(f) ^ Stanford p72–3 ^ Stanford, p 198 ^ "Endangered Species Act". US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved September 12, 2011. ^ 16 U.S.C. §1536(e) ^ 50 C.F.R. §402.13(a) ^ a b "Portland Audubon Society v. Endangered Species Committee". Justia. Retrieved 2009-08-26. ^ Encyclopedia of Earth accessed August 21, 2009 ^ Donald C. Baur, William Robert Irvin The Endangered Species Act: law, policy, and perspectives Published by American Bar Association.
2002 ^ Stanford p127 ^ Habitat Conservation Plans: Section 10 of the Endangered Species Act p. 1 ^ Stanford pp147–8 ^ (H.R. Rep. No. 835, 97th Cong., 2nd Sess. 32, 1982. pp 31–32)  Introduction to Habitat Conservation Planning By: Peter Aengst, Jeremy Anderson, Jay Chamberlin, Christopher Grunewald, Susan Loucks, Elizabeth Wheatley, and Steven Yaffee accessed August 20, 2009 ^ Introduction to Habitat Conservation Planning ^ Stanford pp170–1 ^ Stanford pp168–9 ^ Shirey, P.
D.; Lamberti, G.A. (2010). "Assisted colonization under the U.S. Endangered Species Act". Conservation Letters. 3 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263x.2009.00083.x. ^ USFWS "Delisting a Species" accessed August 25, 2009 Archived March 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Federal Register, Volume 76 Issue 87 (Thursday, May 5, 2011)". ^ FWS Delisting Report Archived 2007-07-28 at the Wayback Machine.
^ United States Fish and Wildlife Service Threatened and Endangered Species System ^ Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife. "Listed Species Summary (Boxscore)". Retrieved 17 January 2017. ^ Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife. "Listed Plants". Retrieved 17 January 2017. ^ Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife. "Listed Animals". Archived from the original on 14 October 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2017. ^ Stephen Dubner and Steven Levitt, Unintended Consequences, New York Times Magazine, 20 January 2008 ^ Richard L.
Stroup. , The Endangered Species Act: Making Innocent Species the Enemy PERC Policy Series: April 1995 ^ Brown, Gardner M. Jr.; Shogren, Jason F. (1998). "Economics of the Endangered Species Act". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 12 (3): 3–20. doi:10.1257/jep.12.3.3. ^ Green & The Center for Public Integrity 1999, pp. 115 & 120. ^ Green & The Center for Public Integrity 1999, p.
120. ^ Green & The Center for Public Integrity 1999, pp. 113–115. ^ Green & The Center for Public Integrity 1999, p. 117. ^ https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/usc_sec_16_00001535----000-.html ^ 16 U.S. Code 1535 ^ Florida Endangered & Threatened Species List ^ Minnesota Endangered & Threatened Species List ^ Compare: Maine State & Federal Endangered & Threatened Species Lists Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine.
with Maine Animals ^ http://www.gc.noaa.gov/schedules/6-ESA/EnadangeredSpeciesAct.pdf ^  Archived April 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. References Corn, M. Lynne and Alexandra M. Wyatt. The Endangered Species Act: A Primer. Congressional Research Service 2016. The Endangered Species Act at Thirty Dale Goble, J. Michael Scott (editors) Island Press 2006. Green, Alan; The Center for Public Integrity (1999).
Animal Underworld: Inside America's Black Market for Rare and Exotic Species. Public Affairs. ISBN 1-58648-374-9. Stanford Environmental Law Society, The Endangered Species Act Stanford University Press 2001 ISBN 0-8047-3842-4. External links ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973 accessed November 11, 2011 Cornell University Law School-Babbit v. Sweet Home accessed July 25, 2005 The 1995 decision on whether significant habitat modifications on private property that actually kill species constitute "harm" for purposes of the ESA.
Center for Biological Diversity accessed July 25, 2005 Endangered Species Program – US Fish & Wildlife Service accessed June 16, 2012 Endangered Species Act – National Marine Fisheries Service – NOAA accessed June 16, 2012 Species Status Categories and Codes – US Fish & Wildlife Service accessed June 16, 2012 Habitat Conservation Plans – US Fish & Wildlife Service accessed June 16, 2012 The 1978 decision related to the ESA and the snail darter.
accessed July, 2005 Summary of Listed Species Listed Populations and Recovery Plans – US Fish & Wildlife Service accessed June 16, 2012 Species Search – US Fish & Wildlife Service accessed June 16, 2012 Electronic Code of Federal Regulations: List of endangered species accessed June 16, 2012 v t e United States environmental law Supreme Court decisions Missouri v. Holland (1920) Sierra Club v.
Morton (1972) United States v. SCRAP (1973) Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill (1978) Vermont Yankee v. NRDC (1978) Hughes v. Oklahoma (1979) Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife (1992) United States v. Bestfoods (1998) Friends of the Earth v. Laidlaw Environmental Services (2000) SWANCC v. Army Corps of Engineers (2001) Department of Transportation v. Public Citizen (2004) Rapanos v. United States (2006) Massachusetts v.
EPA (2007) National Ass'n of Home Builders v. Defenders of Wildlife (2007) Coeur Alaska, Inc. v. Southeast Alaska Conservation Council (2009) Majorfederal legislation and treaties Rivers and Harbors Act (1899) Lacey Act (1900) Weeks Act (1911) North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 (1911) Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918) Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1934) Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act (1954) Clean Air Act (1963, 1970) National Environmental Policy Act (1970) Clean Water Act (1972) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1972) Noise Control Act (1972) Endangered Species Act (1973) Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) Toxic Substances Control Act (1976) Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977) CERCLA (Superfund) (1980) Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (1986) Emergency Wetlands Resources Act (1986) Frank R.
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