how noise pollution affects animals
Traffic is the main source of noise pollution in cities. A Qantas Airways Boeing 747-400 passes close to houses shortly before landing at London Heathrow Airport. Noise pollution is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and transportation systems. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise.
Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas. Documented problems associated with urban environment noise go back as far as Ancient Rome. Noise from roadways and other urban factors can be mitigated by urban planning and better design of roads. Outdoor noise can be caused by machines, construction activities, and music performances, especially in some workplaces.
Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.
 Health Humans A sound level meter, a basic tool in measuring sound Main article: Health effects from noise Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage psychological and physiological health. Noise pollution can cause hypertension, high stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects. Reaction to noise Sound becomes unwanted when it either interferes with normal activities such as sleep or conversation, or disrupts or diminishes one's quality of life.
 Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate more significantly reduced hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79. A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.
S. population showed that chronic exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing loss. High noise levels can result in cardiovascular effects and exposure to moderately high levels during a single eight-hour period causes a statistical rise in blood pressure of five to ten points and an increase in stress, and vasoconstriction leading to the increased blood pressure noted above, as well as to increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
Less addressed is how humans adapt to noise subjectively. Indeed, tolerance for noise is frequently independent of decibel levels. However, Murray Schafer's soundscape research was groundbreaking in this regard. In his eponymous work, he makes compelling arguments about how humans relate to noise on a subjective level, and how such subjectivity is conditioned by culture. He also notes that sound is an expression of power, and as such, material culture (e.
g., fast cars or Harley Davidson motorcycles with aftermarket pipes) tend to have louder engines not only for safety reasons, but for expressions of power by dominating the soundscape with a particular sound. Other key research in this area can be seen in Fong's comparative analysis of soundscape differences between Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California, US. Fong's research methodology was modeled after Schafer, and the research findings show how not only do soundscapes differ, but they also rather explicitly point to the level of urban development in the area; that is, cities in the periphery - in Immanuel Wallerstein-speak - will have different soundscapes than that of cities in the core.
Fong's important findings tie not only soundscape appreciation to our subjective views of sound, but also demonstrates how different sounds of the soundscape are indicative of class differences in urban environments. Wildlife Noise can have a detrimental effect on wild animals, increasing the risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator or prey detection and avoidance, and interfering the use of the sounds in communication, especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation.
Acoustic overexposure can lead to temporary or permanent loss of hearing. An impact of noise on wild animal life is the reduction of usable habitat that noisy areas may cause, which in the case of endangered species may be part of the path to extinction. Noise pollution may have caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being exposed to the loud sound of military sonar.
 (see also Marine mammals and sonar) Noise also makes species communicate more loudly, which is called Lombard vocal response. Scientists and researchers have conducted experiments that show whales' song length is longer when submarine-detectors are on. If creatures do not "speak" loudly enough, their voice will be masked by anthropogenic sounds. These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling.
When one species begins speaking more loudly, it will mask other species' voice, causing the whole ecosystem eventually to speak more loudly. Marine invertebrates, such as crabs (Carcinus maenas), have also been shown to be negatively affected by ship noise. Larger crabs were noted to be negatively affected more by the sounds than smaller crabs. Repeated exposure to the sounds did lead to acclimatization.
 European robins living in urban environments are more likely to sing at night in places with high levels of noise pollution during the day, suggesting that they sing at night because it is quieter, and their message can propagate through the environment more clearly. The same study showed that daytime noise was a stronger predictor of nocturnal singing than night-time light pollution, to which the phenomenon often is attributed.
Anthropogenic noise reduced the species richness of birds found in Neoptropical urban parks. Zebra finches become less faithful to their partners when exposed to traffic noise. This could alter a population's evolutionary trajectory by selecting traits, sapping resources normally devoted to other activities and thus leading to profound genetic and evolutionary consequences. Noise mitigation The sound tube in Melbourne, Australia is designed to reduce roadway noise without detracting from the area's aesthetics.
A man wears ear defenders for protection against noise pollution, 1973. Main article: Noise mitigation Roadway noise can be reduced by the use of noise barriers, limitation of vehicle speeds, alteration of roadway surface texture, limitation of heavy vehicles, use of traffic controls that smooth vehicle flow to reduce braking and acceleration, and tire design. An important factor in applying these strategies is a computer model for roadway noise, that is capable of addressing local topography, meteorology, traffic operations, and hypothetical mitigation.
Costs of building-in mitigation can be modest, provided these solutions are sought in the planning stage of a roadway project. Aircraft noise can be reduced by using quieter jet engines. Altering flight paths and time of day runway has benefitted residents near airports. Industrial noise has been addressed since the 1930s via redesign of industrial equipment, shock mounted assemblies and physical barriers in the workplace.
In recent years, Buy Quiet programs and initiatives have arisen in an effort to combat occupational noise exposures. These programs promote the purchase of quieter tools and equipment and encourage manufacturers to design quieter equipment. The US National Institute for Occupational Health has created a database of industrial equipment with decibel levels noted. Legal status Main article: Noise regulation Up until the 1970s governments tended to view noise as a "nuisance" rather than an environmental problem.
Many conflicts over noise pollution are handled by negotiation between the emitter and the receiver. Escalation procedures vary by country, and may include action in conjunction with local authorities, in particular the police. India Noise pollution is a major problem in India. The government of India has rules & regulations against firecrackers and loudspeakers, but enforcement is extremely lax.
Awaaz Foundation is an Indian NGO working to control noise pollution from various sources through advocacy, public interest litigation, awareness, and educational campaigns since 2003. Despite increased enforcement and stringency of laws now being practised in urban areas, rural areas are still affected. United Kingdom Figures compiled by rockwool, the mineral wool insulation manufacturer, based on responses from local authorities to a Freedom of Information Act (FOI) request reveal in the period April 2008 – 2009 UK councils received 315,838 complaints about noise pollution from private residences.
This resulted in environmental health officers across the UK serving 8,069 noise abatement notices or citations under the terms of the Anti-Social Behaviour (Scotland) Act. In the last 12 months, 524 confiscations of equipment have been authorized involving the removal of powerful speakers, stereos and televisions. Westminster City Council has received more complaints per head of population than any other district in the UK with 9,814 grievances about noise, which equates to 42.
32 complaints per thousand residents. Eight of the top 10 councils ranked by complaints per 1,000 residents are located in London. United States There are federal standards for highway and aircraft noise; states and local governments typically have very specific statutes on building codes, urban planning, and roadway development. Noise laws and ordinances vary widely among municipalities and indeed do not even exist in some cities.
An ordinance may contain a general prohibition against making noise that is a nuisance, or it may set out specific guidelines for the level of noise allowable at certain times of the day and for certain activities. The Environmental Protection Agency retains authority to investigate and study noise and its effect, disseminate information to the public regarding noise pollution and its adverse health effects, respond to inquiries on matters related to noise, and evaluate the effectiveness of existing regulations for protecting the public health and welfare, pursuant to the Noise Control Act of 1972 and the Quiet Communities Act of 1978.
 New York City instituted the first comprehensive noise code in 1985. The Portland Noise Code includes potential fines of up to $5000 per infraction and is the basis for other major U.S. and Canadian city noise ordinances. See also Acoustical engineering Environmental noise Industrial noise Buy Quiet International Noise Awareness Day Noise Abatement Society Noise calculation References ^ Senate Public Works Committee, Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972, S.
Rep. No. 1160, 92nd Cong. 2nd session ^ C. Michael Hogan and Gary L. Latshaw, "The relationship between highway planning and urban noise", The Proceedings of the ASCE, Urban Transportation, May 21–23, 1973, Chicago, Illinois. By American Society of Civil Engineers. Urban Transportation Division ^ "Medscape Log In". ^ Hoffmann, Barbara; Moebus, Susanne; Stang, Andreas; Beck, Eva-Maria; Dragano, Nico; Möhlenkamp, Stephan; Schmermund, Axel; Memmesheimer, Michael; Mann, Klaus (2006-11-01).
"Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease". European Heart Journal. 27 (22): 2696–2702. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl278. ISSN 0195-668X. PMID 17003049. ^ "Results and Discussion - Effects - Noise Effect On Wildlife - Noise - Environment - FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-21. ^ a b c S. Rosen and P. Olin, Hearing Loss and Coronary Heart Disease, Archives of Otolaryngology, 82:236 (1965) ^ J.
M. Field, Effect of personal and situational variables upon noise annoyance in residential areas, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93: 2753-2763 (1993) ^ "Noise Pollution". World Health Organisation. ^ "Road noise link to blood pressure". BBC News. 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2010-05-20. ^ Jefferson, Catrice. "Noise Pollution". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2013-09-24. ^ Rosenhall U, Pedersen K, Svanborg A (1990).
"Presbycusis and noise-induced hearing loss". Ear Hear. 11 (4): 257–63. doi:10.1097/00003446-199008000-00002. PMID 2210099. ^ Schafer, Murray (1977). The Soundscape. Destiny Books. ^ Fong, Jack (2016). "Making Operative Concepts from Murray Schafer's Soundscapes Typology: A Qualitative and Comparative Analysis of Noise Pollution in Bangkok, Thailand and Los Angeles, California". Urban Studies. 53 (1): 173–192.
^ Bahamas Marine Mammal Stranding Event of 15–16 March 2000 ^ [NULL]. "DOSITS: Page Not Found". Retrieved 25 September 2015. ^ "Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to". Bibcode:2003ASAJ..113.3411F. Retrieved 25 September 2015. ^ McClain, Craig. "Loud Noise Makes Crabs Even More Crabby". Deep Sea News. Retrieved 2013-04-04. ^ a b Wale, M. A.; Simpson, S. D.
; Radford, A. N. (2013). "Size-dependent physiological responses of shore crabs to single and repeated playback of ship noise". Biology Letters. 9 (2): 20121194–20121194. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.1194. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 3639773 . PMID 23445945. ^ Fuller RA, Warren PH, Gaston KJ (2007). "Daytime noise predicts nocturnal singing in urban robins". Biology Letters. 3 (4): 368–70. doi:10.1098/rsbl.
2007.0134. PMC 2390663 . PMID 17456449. ^ Perillo, A.; Mazzoni, L. G.; Passos, L. F.; Goulart, V. D. L. R.; Duca, C.; Young, R. J. (2017). "Anthropogenic noise reduces bird species richness and diversity in urban parks". Ibis. 159 (3): 638–646. doi:10.1111/ibi.12481. ^ Milius, S. (2007). High Volume, Low Fidelity: Birds are less faithful as sounds blare, Science News vol. 172, p. 116. (references) ^ "CDC - Buy Quiet - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics".
Retrieved 25 September 2015. ^ "CDC - Buy Quiet: Efforts - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topics". Retrieved 25 September 2015. ^ IANS (29 August 2016). "Freedom from noise pollution will be true independence (Comment: Special to IANS)" – via Business Standard. ^ "Central Pollution Control Board: FAQs". Retrieved 25 September 2015. ^ Rising festival noise undoing past efforts' ^ "London is home to the noisiest neighbours".
London Evening Standard. ^ EPA. "Noise pollution". Environmental protection agency. Retrieved 2013-10-28. ^ City of Portland, Oregon. Auditor's Office. Chapter 18.02 Title Noise Control. Retrieved on April 20, 2009. Bibliography Robert Bartholomew (1974), Sonic environment and human behavior, Exchange Bibliography (565), US: Council of Planning Librarians, ISSN 0010-9959 – via Internet Archive External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Noise pollution.
Noise effects. Beyond annoyance Noise Pollution in U.S. National Parks ASBHelp.co.uk - Report Noise Pollution in the UK Noise pollution at Curlie (based on DMOZ) World Health Organization - Guidelines for Community Noise The effects of noisy urban environment may cause the loss of memory to elderly person (abstract published in 1st World Congress of Health and Urban Environment book.) Clive Thompson on How Man-Made Noise May Be Altering Earth's Ecology EEA draws the first map of Europe's noise exposure - All press releases — EEA Scientific American: How does background noise affect our concentration? (2010-01-04) v t e Pollution Air pollution Acid rain Air quality index Atmospheric dispersion modeling Chlorofluorocarbon Indoor air quality Global dimming Global distillation Global warming Ozone depletion Atmospheric particulate matter Smog Water pollution Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products Environmental impact of shipping Environmental monitoring Eutrophication Freshwater environmental quality parameters Groundwater pollution Hypoxia Marine debris Marine pollution Ocean acidification Oil spill Septic tank Surface runoff Thermal pollution Turbidity Urban runoff Wastewater Water quality Water stagnation Waterborne diseases Soil contamination Bioremediation Electrical resistance heating Herbicide Open defecation Pesticide Phytoremediation Soil Guideline Values (SGVs) Radioactive contamination Actinides in the environment Bioremediation of radioactive waste Environmental radioactivity Fission product Nuclear fallout Plutonium in the environment Radiation poisoning Radium in the environment Uranium in the environment Other types of pollution Land degradation Light pollution Pollution from nanomaterials Noise pollution Radio spectrum pollution Urban heat island Visual pollution Inter-government treaties Basel Convention CLRTAP Kyoto Protocol MARPOL Convention Montreal Protocol OSPAR Rotterdam Convention Stockholm Convention Major organizations Basel Action Network Central Pollution Control Board (India) DEFRA Environment Agency (England and Wales) Scottish Environment Protection Agency U.
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wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Noise_pollution&oldid=821566618"See Also: Animal Jam Gem Codes
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Noise and Noise Pollution FAQ Learn the answers to common questions about noise and noise pollution. FAQ about noise. This Noise and Noise Pollution FAQ lists some Frequently Asked Questions about noise. Noise FAQ What is noise? Noise is defined as unwanted sound. A sound might be unwanted because it is loud, distracting, or annoying.Read more: What is noise? How is noise measured? Literally speaking, noise can't be measured directly, since there is no instrument for objectively detecting how "unwanted" something is.
What can be measured is the sound level, a quantification of a sound's pressure or intensity and related to its loudness. Sound level is measured in decibels (dB), by a device called a sound level meter.Read more: What is a decibel? What are typical decibel levels of some common sounds? A whisper is 30 dB, conversational speech is 60 dB, and someone shouting at you from an arm's length away is 85 dB.
Noise levels of home appliances range from 50 dB (a refrigerator) to 95 dB (a food processor). Lawn equipment and power tools have noise levels of 80–120 dB.See more: Decibel comparison chart How many decibels can the human ear handle? Immediate and irreversible nerve damage can be caused by sounds at 140 dB or higher (120 dB in young children). However, damage also occurs at lower sound levels, and this harm accumulates over time.
Any sound above 85 dB can cause wear and tear on your ears that reduces your hearing acuity over time.Read more: Safe noise exposure limits What is the loudest sound possible? Sound is normally carried in air as a pressure wave. When the pressure of a sound wave becomes as high as the air pressure itself, the sound becomes a shock wave. Normal air pressure at sea level is 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi), or 101,325 pascals (Pa), which is equivalent to 194 decibels (dB).
So 194 dB is the loudest sound possible in air at sea level; beyond that point it becomes a shock wave. (Sound waves that are transmitted through water or other substances would have different limits.) What are the effects of noise on human health? Noise has direct physiological effects such as hearing damage (including hearing loss and tinnitus, or ringing in the ears), as well as cardiovascular and hormonal disturbances.
Indirect effects include sleep loss, interference with concentration and learning, mood changes and aggression, and social isolation.Read more: How noise affects you How does noise affect babies and children? Because the ear canal of a young child is smaller than an adult's, sound pressure is up to 20 dB greater than that in an adult ear. In addition to the threat to a child's hearing, noise causes physiological and mental stress, and significantly impacts learning and cognitive development.
Background noise also interferes with speech perception and language acquisition.Read more: Hearing protection and children What is "white noise"? White noise is a sound similar to radio static, or the sound a fan makes, that is often used to mask unpleasant sounds. Some people find it helpful for sleeping, and it can be a soothing sound for babies.Read more: What is white noise? Noise Pollution FAQ What is noise pollution? Noise pollution is manmade sound in the environment that may be harmful to humans or animals.
Read more: What is noise pollution? What are the most common sources of noise pollution? Worldwide, the most common sources of noise pollution are cars, trucks, and other motor vehicles. Planes and trains also contribute to noise pollution. Other sources include factory machinery, power tools, and construction equipment.Read more: Examples of noise What problems does noise pollution cause for people? The World Health Organization (WHO) cites seven categories for the ways noise adversely affects human health: Noise-induced hearing impairment Interference with speech communication Sleep disturbances Cardiovascular and physiological effects Mental health effects Effects on performance of tasks Annoyance and effects on behavior Read more: How noise affects you What problems does noise pollution cause for animals? Wild animals rely on their hearing for detecting predators, finding mates, establishing territory, and recognizing warning alerts.
Unnaturally high levels of noise can damage their hearing and can also mask more subtle sounds that they need to hear in order to survive and reproduce. They may also react with a fight-or-flight response to artificial sounds such as aircraft noise, thereby using up valuable energy reserves to flee from a non-existent predator. If noise in an area becomes too intrusive, animals may shift to a new territory or alter their migration patterns, which can create new complications for their mating and survival.
What are the laws regarding noise pollution? Occupational noise is treated as a health and safety issue and is regulated at the state or national level in many countries. Community noise is typically regarded as a nuisance issue rather than a matter of health, and is normally regulated at local levels of government. The regulations and levels of enforcement vary widely across different communities, and worldwide.
Noise-generating products such as automobiles and aircraft may be controlled by industry regulations, and building codes may set requirements for reducing sound transmission in new building construction projects.Read more: Noise pollution laws What can I do personally to reduce my own noise pollution? Mow your lawn at times that are reasonable for your neighborhood. Avoid using high-noise yard tools such as leaf blowers and power hedge trimmers.
Keep your motor vehicle's muffler in good condition. Only honk your horn in an emergency. Train your dog not to bark inappropriately. Put your cell phone on "vibrate" mode, and excuse yourself to a private area to conduct a phone conversation. Turn off the TV if no one is watching it. If you want to enjoy loud music, use headphones. Read more: Reducing everyday noise How can I join with others to reduce noise pollution? If you have a concern about a specific noise issue in your community, the most effective way to make a difference is to join a local group that shares your concern.
If there is no existing group, you may want to organize one yourself. NoiseOFF is a broad-based coalition that can provide you with information, contacts, and tools to help. Practical Noise Questions How do I keep my dog from barking? How do I stop my neighbor's dog from barking? What's the best way to block out noise so I can sleep? What are some cheap ways to soundproof my home? Can greenery be used to help block noise outdoors? See questions sent in by Noise Help readers.
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