endangered animals in india wikipedia
According to the Red Data List of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), there are 48 critically endangered species in India (as of 5 September 2011). The Red List of 2012 was released at the Rio+20 Earth Summit . It contains 132 species of plants and animals in India listed as critically endangered. Critically endangered in India Arthropoda Rameshwaram parachute spider (Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica) Peacock tarantula (Poecilotheria metallica) Birds White-bellied heron (Ardea insignis) Great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps) Forest owlet (Athene blewitti) Baer's pochard (Aythya baeri) Spoon-billed sandpiper (Calidris pygmaea) Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) White-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) Indian vulture (Gyps indicus) Slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis) Bugun liocichla (Liocichla bugunorum) Himalayan quail (Ophrysia superciliosa) Jerdon's courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus) Pink-headed duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) Red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) Sociable lapwing (Vanellus gregarius) Fish Wayanad mahseer (Barbodes wynaadensis) Pondicherry shark (Carcharhinus hemiodon) Ganges shark (Glyphis gangeticus) Glyptothorax kashmirensis (Glyptothorax kashmirensis) Kudremukh glyptothorax (Glyptothorax kudremukhensis) Nilgiri Mystus (Hemibagrus punctatus) Horalabiosa arunachalami (Horalabiosa arunachalami) Hypselobarbus pulchellus (Hypselobarbus pulchellus) Red Canarese barb (Hypselobarbus thomassi) Deccan labeo (Labeo potail) Mesonoemacheilus herrei (Mesonoemacheilus herrei) Bovany barb (Neolissochilus bovanicus) Deolali minnow (Parapsilorhynchus prateri) Pookode Lake barb (Pethia pookodensis) Common sawfish (Pristis pristis) Largetooth sawfish (Pristis microdon) Longcomb sawfish (Pristis zijsron) Psilorhynchus tenura (Psilorhynchus tenura) Deccan barb (Puntius deccanensis) Schistura papulifera (Schistura papulifera) Insects Pygmy Hog Sucking Louse (Haematopinus oliveri) Reptiles and amphibians Madras spotted skink (Barkudia insularis) Northern river terrapin (Batagur baska) Red-crowned roofed turtle (Batagur kachuga) Cnemaspis anaikattiensis(Cnemaspis anaikattiensis) Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) Ghats wart frog (Fejervarya murthii) Jeypore ground gecko (Geckoella jeyporensis) Gundia Indian frog (Indirana gundia) Toad-skinned frog (Indirana phrynoderma) Charles Darwin's frog (Ingerana charlesdarwini) Rao's torrent frog (Micrixalus kottigeharensis) Dattatreya night frog (Nyctibatrachus dattatreyaensis) Sacred grove bushfrog (Philautus sanctisilvaticus) Amboli bush frog (Pseudophilautus amboli) White-spotted bush frog (Raorchestes chalazodes) Green eyed bushfrog (Raorchestes chlorosomma) Griet bush frog (Raorchestes griet) Kaikatti bushfrog (Raorchestes kaikatti) Mark's bushfrog (Raorchestes marki) Munnar bush frog (Raorchestes munnarensis) Ponmudi bush frog (Raorchestes ponmudi) Resplendent shrubfrog (Raorchestes resplendens) Shillong bubble-nest frog (Raorchestes shillongensis) Anaimalai flying frog (Rhacophorus pseudomalabaricus) Sushil's bushfrog (Raorchestes sushili) Amboli toad (Xanthophryne tigerina) Ghats wart frog (Zakerana murthii) Mammals Asiatic cheetah} (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) [a] Namdapha flying squirrel (Biswamoyopterus biswasi) Himalayan wolf ("Canis himalayensis") Elvira rat (Cremnomys elvira) Andaman shrew (Crocidura andamanensis) Jenkins' shrew (Crocidura jenkinsi) Nicobar shrew (Crocidura nicobarica) Northern Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis lasiotis) [a] Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) Kondana soft-furred rat (Millardia kondana) Pygmy hog (Porcula salvania) Indian Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus inermis) [a] Malabar large-spotted civet (Viverra civettina) Endangered Fish Knifetooth sawfish (Anoxypristis cuspidata) Asian arowana (Scleropages formosus) Red line torpedo barb (Sahyadria denisonii) Golden Mahaseer (Tor putitora) Birds Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris) Masked Finfoot (Heliopais personatus) Greater Adjutant (Leptoptilos dubius) White-bellied Blue Robin (Myiomela albiventris) Nilgiri Blue Robin (Myiomela major) White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus) Narcondam hornbill (Rhyticero) Spotted Greenshank (Tringa guttifer) Banasura Laughingthrush (Trochalopteron jerdoni) Reptiles Perrotet's Vine Snake (Ahaetulla perroteti) Three-striped Roofed Turtle (Batagur dhongoka) Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Indian Narrow-headed Softshell Turtle (Chitra indica) Goan Day Gecko (Cnemaspis goaensis) Wyanad Day Gecko (Cnemaspis wynadensis) Keeled Box Turtle (Cuora mouhotii) Boulenger's Dasia (Dasia subcaerulea) Poona Skink (Eurylepis poonaensis) Inger's Mabuya (Eutropis clivicola) Yellow-headed Tortoise (Indotestudo elongata) Asian forest tortoise (Manouria emys) Indian Kangaroo Lizard (Otocryptis beddomii) Assam Roofed Turtle (Pangshura sylhetensis) Asian Giant Softshell Turtle (Pelochelys cantorii) Travancore Hills Thorntail Snake (Platyplectrurus madurensis) Travancore Earth Snake (Rhinophis travancoricus) Cochin Forest Cane Turtle (Vijayachelys silvatica) Mammals Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Banteng (Bos javanicus) Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) Hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus) Dhole (Cuon alpinus) Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) Woolly flying squirrel (Eupetaurus cinereus) Kolar leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros hypophyllus) Lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) White-bellied musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) Servant mouse (Mus famulus) Mandelli's mouse-eared bat (Myotis sicarius) Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) Gee's golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) Nicobar treeshrew (Tupaia nicobarica) Vulnerable Listed by the IUCN As of 2012: Mammals Gaur (Bos gaurus) Yak (Bos grunhniens) Takin (Budorcas taxicolor) Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii) Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) Dugong (Dugong dugon) Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) Marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata) Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Rusty-spotted cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus) Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) Birds Sarus crane (Antigone antigone) Nicobar megapode (Megapodius nicobariensis) Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) Reptiles and amphibians Olive ridley sea turtle Notes ^ a b c Extinct from India See also Fauna of India Mammals of India Endangered mammals of India References ^ "Extinction Animals (Press Release)".
Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2011-09-05. ^ Red list has 132 species of plants, animals from India ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/current-news ^ Extinction threat 'a call to world leaders' at Rio Earth Summit ^ "Endangered Mammal List". Wildlife Institute of India (WII). Archived from the original on 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2007-08-06. v t e Threatened species by region By region Blue-listed Environmental Vulnerability Index Regional Red List Australasia Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 ROTAP Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 Threatened ecological community Trade in Endangered Species Act 1989 Canada Species at Risk Act Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada Europe European Endangered Species Programme Funds for Endangered Parrots South Africa Endangered Wildlife Trust United States Distinct population segment Endangered Species Act of 1973 Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1978 Endangered species recovery plan Endangered Wolf Center National Wildlife Refuge NatureServe conservation status The Nature Conservancy Lists Asia List of endangered and protected species of China Endangered mammals of India List of endangered animals in India List of endangered species in Pakistan List of threatened species of the Philippines List of endangered species in Vietnam Europe Threatened mammals of Europe Endangered plants of Europe List of United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan species List of extinct and endangered species of Italy List of extinct and endangered species of Lithuania North America List of endangered plants in North America List of endangered species in North America Endangered mammals and birds of the United States List of threatened mammals of the United States List of threatened birds of the United States List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States Elsewhere Threatened fauna of Australia List of threatened flora of Australia List of endangered flora of Brazil List of threatened mammals of Brazil List of threatened birds of Brazil v t e Threatened species Template: Threatened species by region IUCN Red List Categories1 Extinct Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW) Threatened Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Lower risk Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Lower Risk (LR) Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) Not fully assessed Data Deficient (DD) Not Evaluated (NE) Species Lists Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient WP categories Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient CITES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III By taxa Endangered arthropods / spiders Threatened Banksia / rays / sharks / Fungi / Chromista The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates The world's 100 most threatened species Conservation Biodiversity action plan Biodiversity threats Conservation biology CITES ARKive Bird conservation Conservation status Conservation-reliant species Ecoregion conservation status Habitat destruction Latent extinction risk Rare species Vulnerability and susceptibility 1 Pre-2001 categories and subcategories shown in italics.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_endangered_animals_in_India&oldid=821562106"See Also: Sun Valley Animal Clinic
Away from a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the new blueness with the Florida sky, ran a little, tawny-haired boy. His bare feet, extending from his overalled legs, crackled in opposition to the fallen palmettos. He leaped to the air, flinging his arms toward a flock of white doves circling previously mentioned him.
The zoo might be an excellent alternate spot if you'd like to have animals images without the need of having a trip to safari in summer months. You can acquire their images in the risk-free bench that may be available close to the cages. To make you success in taking the photographs of animals that you'd like, you may abide by the subsequent guidelines.
For other uses, see Endangered species (disambiguation). "Endangered" redirects here. For other uses, see Endangered (disambiguation). Conservation status by IUCN Red List category Extinct Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW) (list) (list) Threatened Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) (list) (list) (list) Lower Risk Near Threatened (NT) Conservation Dependent (CD) Least Concern (LC) (list) (list) Other categories Data Deficient (DD) Not Evaluated (NE) (list) Related topics International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) IUCN Red List Lists of organisms by population v t e The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), an endangered species.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct. Endangered (EN), as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered (CR). In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3079 animal and 2655 plant species as endangered (EN) worldwide.
 The figures for 1998 were, respectively, 1102 and 1197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers, trends and species' conservation status can be found in the lists of organisms by population. Conservation status Main article: Conservation status The conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood that it will become extinct.
Many factors are considered when assessing the conservation status of a species; e.g., such statistics as the number remaining, the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, or known threats. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 40% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction.
 Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species. In the United States, such plans are usually called Species Recovery Plans. IUCN Red List The Siberian tiger is an Endangered (EN) tiger subspecies. Three tiger subspecies are already extinct (see List of carnivorans by population). Blue-throated macaw, an endangered species Brown spider monkey, an endangered species Siamese crocodile, an endangered species American burying beetle, an endangered species Kemp's ridley sea turtle, an endangered species Mexican Wolf, the most endangered subspecies of the North American Grey Wolf.
Approximately 143 are living wild. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" (DD) species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process. Those species of "Near Threatened" (NT) and "Least Concern" (LC) status have been assessed and found to have relatively robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline.
Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" (EN) species lie between "Vulnerable" (VU) and "Critically Endangered" (CR) species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered. The IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct (EX) no remaining individuals of the species Examples: aurochs ara atwoodi blackfin cisco Caribbean monk seal wooly mammoth Caspian tiger dodo Paraceratherium eastern cougar great auk Guam flycatcher Gomphotaria pugnax Javan tiger Labrador duck lesser bilby New Zealand quail passenger pigeon Schomburgk's deer Steller's sea cow thylacine toolache wallaby dinosaur California Grizzly Bear Extinct in the wild (EW) Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Examples: Guam's kingfisher Hawaiian crow Père David's deer scimitar oryx Socorro dove Wyoming toad Critically endangered (CR) Faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Examples: addax African wild ass Asiatic lion Alabama cavefish Amur leopard Arabian leopard Arakan forest turtle Asiatic cheetah axolotl Bactrian camel black rhino blue-throated macaw Brazilian merganser brown spider monkey California condor Chinese alligator Chinese giant salamander Cross River gorilla Florida panther gharial Hawaiian monk seal Imperial woodpecker Ivory-billed Woodpecker Tristan albatross Amsterdam albatross Leadbeater's possum Mediterranean monk seal mountain gorilla Northwest African cheetah northern hairy-nosed wombat Philippine crocodile red wolf saiga Siamese crocodile red throated lorikeet Spix's macaw southern bluefin tuna South China tiger Rück's blue flycatcher Sumatran orangutan Sumatran rhinoceros blue fronted lorikeet vaquita Yangtze river dolphin northern white rhinoceros western lowland gorilla hawksbill sea turtle Kemp's ridley sea turtle Endangered (EN) Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future.
Examples: Mexican Wolf African penguin African wild dog[a] Amur tiger Asian elephant Bengal tiger Australasian bittern blue whale bonobo Bornean orangutan common chimpanzee dhole eastern lowland gorilla Ethiopian wolf Flores crow hispid hare giant otter Goliath frog green sea turtle loggerhead sea turtle Grevy's zebra Humblot's heron Iberian lynx Japanese crane Japanese night heron Lear's macaw Malayan tapir markhor Malagasy pond heron yellow headed amazon purple-faced langur red-breasted goose Rothschild's giraffe snow leopard South Andean deer anoa takhi Toque macaque Vietnamese pheasant volcano rabbit wild water buffalo white-eared night heron Whooping crane fishing cat tasmanian devil red panda Vulnerable (VU) Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term.
Examples: African grey parrot military macaw[b] African leopard American paddlefish common carp clouded leopard cheetah[c] dugong Far Eastern curlew fossa Galapagos tortoise[d] gaur blue headed macaw blue-eyed cockatoo golden hamster Great slaty woodpecker hyacinth macaw Humboldt penguin blue crane lesser white-fronted goose mandrill maned sloth Montserrat oriole mountain zebra Hawaiian goose pacific walrus sloth bear takin yak great white shark American crocodile white-necked crow dingo Near-threatened (NT) May be considered threatened in the near future.
Examples: American bison Asian golden cat blue-billed duck emperor goose emperor penguin Eurasian curlew jaguar Larch Mountain salamander lesser long-nosed bat Magellanic penguin maned wolf margay montane solitary eagle Pampas cat Pallas's cat reddish egret white rhinoceros striped hyena tiger shark white eared pheasant Least concern (LC) No immediate threat to species' survival. Examples: Black bellied whistling duck Saltwater crocodile Indian peafowl olive baboon bald eagle lesser bird of paradise brown bear brown rat brown-throated sloth Canada goose cane toad common wood pigeon magpie goose grey wolf house mouse wolverine palm cockatoo Louisiana black bear mallard mute swan Eurasian magpie red-billed queleacommon hill myna red-tailed hawk rock pigeon blue and yellow macaw southern elephant seal Freshwater crocodile humpback whale red howler monkey Criteria for 'Endangered (EN)'  A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on (and specifying) any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1. A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years), based on (and specifying) any of (b) to (e) under A1.
An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future), where the time period must include both the past and the future, and where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on (and specifying) any of (a) to (e) under A1.
B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) OR B2 (area of occupancy) OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², and estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, inferred, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², and estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, inferred, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals C) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, (up to a maximum of 100 years in the future) OR A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature individuals AND at least one of the follow (a-b): Population structure in the form of one of the following: no subpopulation estimated to contain more than 250 mature individuals, OR at least 95% of mature individuals in one subpopulation Extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals D) Population size estimated to number fewer than 250 mature individuals.
E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least 20% within 20 years or five generations, whichever is the longer (up to a maximum of 100 years). ^ Near-critically endangered. ^ Particularly sensitive to poaching levels. ^ Near-endangered due to poaching. ^ May vary according to levels of tourism. Endangered species in the United States There is data from the United States that shows a correlation between human populations and threatened and endangered species.
Using species data from the Database on the Economics and Management of Endangered Species (DEMES) database and the period that the Endangered Species Act (ESA) has been in existence, 1970 to 1997, a table was created that suggests a positive relationship between human activity and species endangerment. Endangered Species Act "Endangered" in relation to "threatened" under the ESA. Under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 in the United States, species may be listed as "endangered" or "threatened".
The Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana) is an example of an endangered subspecies protected under the ESA. The US Fish and Wildlife Service as well as the National Marine Fisheries Service are held responsible for classifying and protecting endangered species, and adding a particular species to the list can be a long, controversial process (Wilcove & Master, 2008, p. 414).
Some endangered species laws are controversial. Typical areas of controversy include: criteria for placing a species on the endangered species list and criteria for removing a species from the list once its population has recovered; whether restrictions on land development constitute a "taking" of land by the government; the related question of whether private landowners should be compensated for the loss of uses of their lands; and obtaining reasonable exceptions to protection laws.
Also lobbying from hunters and various industries like the petroleum industry, construction industry, and logging, has been an obstacle in establishing endangered species laws. The Bush administration lifted a policy that required federal officials to consult a wildlife expert before taking actions that could damage endangered species. Under the Obama administration, this policy has been reinstated.
 Being listed as an endangered species can have negative effect since it could make a species more desirable for collectors and poachers. This effect is potentially reducible, such as in China where commercially farmed turtles may be reducing some of the pressure to poach endangered species. Another problem with the listing species is its effect of inciting the use of the "shoot, shovel, and shut-up" method of clearing endangered species from an area of land.
Some landowners currently may perceive a diminution in value for their land after finding an endangered animal on it. They have allegedly opted to silently kill and bury the animals or destroy habitat, thus removing the problem from their land, but at the same time further reducing the population of an endangered species. The effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act – which coined the term "endangered species" – has been questioned by business advocacy groups and their publications but is nevertheless widely recognized by wildlife scientists who work with the species as an effective recovery tool.
Nineteen species have been delisted and recovered and 93% of listed species in the northeastern United States have a recovering or stable population. Currently, 1,556 known species in the world have been identified as near extinction or endangered and are under protection by government law. This approximation, however, does not take into consideration the number of species threatened with endangerment that are not included under the protection of such laws as the Endangered Species Act.
According to NatureServe's global conservation status, approximately thirteen percent of vertebrates (excluding marine fish), seventeen percent of vascular plants, and six to eighteen percent of fungi are considered imperiled.:415 Thus, in total, between seven and eighteen percent of the United States' known animals, fungi and plants are near extinction.:416 This total is substantially more than the number of species protected in the United States under the Endangered Species Act.
Bald eagle American bison Ever since mankind began hunting to preserve itself, over-hunting and fishing has been a large and dangerous problem. Of all the species who became extinct due to interference from mankind, the dodo, passenger pigeon, great auk, Tasmanian tiger and Steller's sea cow are some of the more well known examples; with the bald eagle, grizzly bear, American bison, Eastern timber wolf and sea turtle having been hunted to near-extinction.
Many began as food sources seen as necessary for survival but became the target of sport. However, due to major efforts to prevent extinction, the bald eagle, or Haliaeetus leucocephalus is now under the category of Least Concern on the red list. A present-day example of the over-hunting of a species can be seen in the oceans as populations of certain whales have been greatly reduced. Large whales like the blue whale, bowhead whale, finback whale, gray whale, sperm whale and humpback whale are some of the eight whales which are currently still included on the Endangered Species List.
Actions have been taken to attempt reduction in whaling and increase population sizes, including prohibiting all whaling in United States waters, the formation of the CITES treaty which protects all whales, along with the formation of the International Whaling Commission (IWC). But even though all of these movements have been put in place, countries such as Japan continue to hunt and harvest whales under the claim of "scientific purposes".
 Over-hunting, climatic change and habitat loss leads in landing species in endangered species list and could mean that extinction rates could increase to a large extent in the future. Invasive species Main article: Introduced species The introduction of non-indigenous species to an area can disrupt the ecosystem to such an extent that native species become endangered. Such introductions may be termed alien or invasive species.
In some cases the invasive species compete with the native species for food or prey on the natives. In other cases a stable ecological balance may be upset by predation or other causes leading to unexpected species decline. New species may also carry diseases to which the native species have no resistance. Conservation The dhole, Asia's most endangered top predator, is on the edge of extinction.
Captive breeding Main article: Captive breeding Captive breeding is the process of breeding rare or endangered species in human controlled environments with restricted settings, such as wildlife reserves, zoos and other conservation facilities. Captive breeding is meant to save species from extinction and so stabilize the population of the species that it will not disappear. This technique has worked for many species for some time, with probably the oldest known such instances of captive mating being attributed to menageries of European and Asian rulers, an example being the Père David's deer.
However, captive breeding techniques are usually difficult to implement for such highly mobile species as some migratory birds (e.g. cranes) and fishes (e.g. hilsa). Additionally, if the captive breeding population is too small, then inbreeding may occur due to a reduced gene pool and reduce immunity. In 1981, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) created a Species Survival Plan (SSP) in order to help preserve specific endangered and threatened species through captive breeding.
With over 450 SSP Plans, there are a number of endangered species that are covered by the AZA with plans to cover population management goals and recommendations for breeding for a diverse and healthy population, created by Taxon Advisory Groups. These programs are commonly created as a last resort effort. SSP Programs regularly participate in species recovery, veterinary care for wildlife disease outbreaks, and a number of other wildlife conservation efforts.
The AZA's Species Survival Plan also has breeding and transfer programs, both within and outside of AZA - certified zoos and aquariums. Some animals that are part of SSP programs are giant pandas, lowland gorillas, and California condors. Private farming Black rhino Southern bluefin tuna Whereas poaching substantially reduces endangered animal populations, legal, for-profit, private farming does the opposite.
It has substantially increased the populations of the southern black rhinoceros and southern white rhinoceros. Dr Richard Emslie, a scientific officer at the IUCN, said of such programs, "Effective law enforcement has become much easier now that the animals are largely privately owned... We have been able to bring local communities into the conservation programmes. There are increasingly strong economic incentives attached to looking after rhinos rather than simply poaching: from Eco-tourism or selling them on for a profit.
So many owners are keeping them secure. The private sector has been key to helping our work." Conservation experts view the effect of China's turtle farming on the wild turtle populations of China and South-Eastern Asia – many of which are endangered – as "poorly understood". Although they commend the gradual replacement of turtles caught wild with farm-raised turtles in the marketplace – the percentage of farm-raised individuals in the "visible" trade grew from around 30% in 2000 to around 70% in 2007 – they worry that many wild animals are caught to provide farmers with breeding stock.
The conservation expert Peter Paul van Dijk noted that turtle farmers often believe that animals caught wild are superior breeding stock. Turtle farmers may, therefore, seek and catch the last remaining wild specimens of some endangered turtle species. In 2009, researchers in Australia managed to coax southern bluefin tuna to breed in landlocked tanks, raising the possibility that fish farming may be able to save the species from overfishing.
 Gallery The endangered (near threatened) island fox. Though endangered, the sea otter has a relatively large population. 1870s photo of American bison skulls. By 1890, overhunting had reduced the population to 750. Immature California condor. Loggerhead sea turtle Asian arowana Hawksbill sea turtle Cantor's giant softshell turtle See also ARKive Biodiversity Cobthorn Trust critically endangered endangered plants of Europe Endangered Species Act of 1973 Ex-situ conservation extinction Holocene extinction Habitat fragmentation Hawaiian honeycreeper conservation In-situ conservation The Last paradises: On the Track of Rare Animals (1967 film) List of endangered species in India List of endangered species in North America List of National Wildlife Refuges established for endangered species Overexploitation NatureServe conservation status Rare species Red Data Book of the Russian Federation red-listed / blue-listed threatened species United States Fish and Wildlife Service list of endangered species World Conference on Breeding endangered Species in Captivity as an Aid to their Survival (WCBESCAS) World Conservation Union (IUCN) World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) IUCN Red List Lists of IUCN Red List endangered species List of endangered amphibians List of endangered arthropods List of endangered birds List of endangered fishes List of endangered insects List of endangered invertebrates List of endangered mammals List of endangered molluscs List of endangered reptiles List of Chromista by conservation status List of fungi by conservation status Notes and references ^ "IUCN Red List version 2012.
2: Table 2: Changes in numbers of species in the threatened categories (CR, EN, VU) from 1996 to 2012 (IUCN Red List version 2012.2) for the major taxonomic groups on the Red List" (PDF). IUCN. 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-31. ^ "NatureServe Conservation Status". NatureServe. April 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN. February 2011. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
^ "Threatened Species". Conservation and Wildlife. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ "The Tiger". Sundarbans Tiger Project. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012. ^ Abramov, A.; Belant, J. & Wozencraft, C. (2009). "Gulo gulo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Retrieved 2010-01-25. ^ http://www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_3_1 ^ Shogren, Jason F.; Tschirhart, John (eds.). Protecting Endangered Species in the United States: Biological Needs, Political Realities, Economic Choices. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0521662109. ^ FWS.gov ^ Courchamp, Franck; Elena Angulo; Philippe Rivalan; Richard J. Hall; Laetitia Signoret; Leigh Bull; Yves Meinard.
"Rarity Value and Species Extinction: The Anthropogenic Allee Effect". PLoS Biology. Retrieved 2006-12-19. ^ Dharmananda, Subhuti. "Endangered Species issues affecting turtles and tortoises used in Chinese medicine". Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon. Retrieved 2006-12-19. ^ "Shoot, Shovel and Shut Up". Reasononline. Reason Magazine. 2003-12-31. Retrieved 2006-12-23. ^ "USFWS Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS)".
U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 2007-07-28. Retrieved 2007-08-06. ^ Success Stories for Endangered Species Act ^ a b Wilcove & Master 2008. ^ "Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2015-11-01. ^ Freedman, Bill (2008). "Endangered species". Gale (4th ed.). ^ Chiras, Daniel D. (2011). "Invader Species". Grolier. Online. ^ "Captive Breeding Populations - National Zoo".
Nationalzoo.si.edu. Retrieved 2009-12-06. ^ "Association of Zoos and Aquariums Species Survival Programs". ^ He's black, and he's back! Private enterprise saves southern Africa's rhino from extinction, The Independent, June 17, 2008 ^ Shi, Haitao; Parham, James F.; Fan, Zhiyong; Hong, Meiling; Yin, Feng (2008-01-01). "Evidence for the massive scale of turtle farming in China". Oryx. 42. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 147–150. doi:10.1017/S0030605308000562. Retrieved 2009-12-26. ^ a b "Turtle farms threaten rare species, experts say Archived 2012-02-18 at the Wayback Machine.". Fish Farmer, 30 March 2007. Their source is an article by James Parham, Shi Haitao and two other authors, published in February 2007 in the journal Conservation Biology. ^ The Top 10 Everything of 2009: Top 10 Scientific Discoveries: 5.
Breeding Tuna on Land, Time magazine, December 8, 2009. Bibliography Glenn, C. R. 2006. "Earth's Endangered Creatures". Ishwaran, N., & Erdelen, W. (2005, May). Biodiversity Futures, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(4), 179. Kotiaho, J. S., Kaitala, V., Komonen, A., Päivinen, J. P., & Ehrlich, P. R. (2005, February 8). Predicting the Risk of Extinction from Shared Ecological Characteristics, proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(6), 1963-1967.
minteer, B. A., & Collins, J. P. (2005, August). Why we need an "Ecological Ethics", Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(6), 332-337. Raloff, J. (2006, August 5). Preserving Paradise, Science News, 170(6), 92. Wilcove, D. S., & Master L. L. (2008, October). How Many Endangered Species are there in the United States? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3(8), 414-420. Freedman, Bill.
"endangered species." Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale Group, 2008. Discovering Collection. Gale. Chiras, Daniel D. "Invader Species." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Grolier Online, 2011. "endangered Species." Current Issues: Macmillan social Science Library. Detroit: Gale, 2010. External links Endangered species profiles from Earth's endangered Creatures List of species with the category Endangered as identified by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Endangered Species from UCB Libraries GovPubs Endangered Species & Wetlands Report Independent print and online newsletter covering the ESA, wetlands and regulatory takings.
USFWS numerical summary of listed species in US and elsewhere https://worldwildlife.org/species v t e Threatened species Template: Threatened species by region IUCN Red List Categories1 Extinct Extinct (EX) Extinct in the Wild (EW) Threatened Critically Endangered (CR) Endangered (EN) Vulnerable (VU) Lower risk Near Threatened (NT) Least Concern (LC) Lower Risk (LR) Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) Not fully assessed Data Deficient (DD) Not Evaluated (NE) Species Lists Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient WP categories Extinct Extinct in the Wild Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable Near Threatened Least Concern Data Deficient CITES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III By taxa Endangered arthropods / spiders Threatened Banksia / rays / sharks / Fungi / Chromista The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates The world's 100 most threatened species Conservation Biodiversity action plan Biodiversity threats Conservation biology CITES ARKive Bird conservation Conservation status Conservation-reliant species Ecoregion conservation status Habitat destruction Latent extinction risk Rare species Vulnerability and susceptibility 1 Pre-2001 categories and subcategories shown in italics.
v t e Threatened species by region By region Blue-listed Environmental Vulnerability Index Regional Red List Australasia Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 ROTAP Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 Threatened ecological community Trade in Endangered Species Act 1989 Canada Species at Risk Act Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada Europe European Endangered Species Programme Funds for Endangered Parrots South Africa Endangered Wildlife Trust United States Distinct population segment Endangered Species Act of 1973 Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1978 Endangered species recovery plan Endangered Wolf Center National Wildlife Refuge NatureServe conservation status The Nature Conservancy Lists Asia List of endangered and protected species of China Endangered mammals of India List of endangered animals in India List of endangered species in Pakistan List of threatened species of the Philippines List of endangered species in Vietnam Europe Threatened mammals of Europe Endangered plants of Europe List of United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan species List of extinct and endangered species of Italy List of extinct and endangered species of Lithuania North America List of endangered plants in North America List of endangered species in North America Endangered mammals and birds of the United States List of threatened mammals of the United States List of threatened birds of the United States List of threatened reptiles and amphibians of the United States Elsewhere Threatened fauna of Australia List of threatened flora of Australia List of endangered flora of Brazil List of threatened mammals of Brazil List of threatened birds of Brazil Endangered Species v t e Zoos, aquariums and aviaries Types of zoos Animal sanctuary Animal theme park Aquarium Aviary Bear pit Butterfly house Dolphinarium Herpetarium Insectarium Nature center Marine mammal park Menagerie Night safari Oceanarium Penguinarium Pheasantry Petting zoo Reptile centre Safari park Serpentarium Virtual zoo Vivarium Zoo Conservation Biodiversity Endangered species Ex situ conservation In situ conservation reintroduction Conservation biology Lists Aquariums Conservation topics Dolphinariums Zoos Zoo associations Other topics Animals in captivity Animal training Behavioral enrichment Captive breeding Frozen zoo Immersion exhibit Nocturnal house Wildlife conservation Zookeeper Zoological society Zoology Portal Category Retrieved from "https://en.