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Congressional Research Service Reports The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress and solely serves Congress as a source of nonpartisan, objective analysis and research on all legislative issues. Through Congress, the National Agricultural Law Center periodically receives CRS reports related to agriculture and food issues. New and updated reports will be posted here as they are obtained.
The reports are organized into categories with efficient research and easier topic identification as main goals. Further division by multiple sub-topics in many of the categories specifically pinpoint topics relevant to individual areas of interest. However, it is important to note that many of the reports may fall into more than one category. For example, a report titled “Federal Food Assistance in Disasters” may have elements relevant to both the disaster assistance category and the food security and aid category.
In those cases, the report was put into the category that seemed the most relevant to the overall subject of the paper. While every effort was made to ensure consistency, a careful researcher should exercise discretion and define the research scope accordingly. Many CRS reports are updated regularly. If you have subjects or reports of particular interest, please check the entries periodically for updated versions.
Note: New postings will be added at the top of the sections with the most timely reports marked as NEW. Reports that have been updated recently will be marked as Updated. SUBJECT INDEX Animal AgricultureAquacultureBankruptcyBiotechnologyBudget and AppropriationsClimate ChangeCommoditiesDisaster Impact and AssistanceEconomyEnergyEnvironmental IssuesEstate Planning and TaxationFarm Bills/Economic StimulusFarm LaborFarm Commodity ProgramsFarm Policy and Legislative AnalysisFinance and CreditFood SafetyFood Security/AidForestryInternational AgriculturePublic LandsRural DevelopmentSecurity and DefenseSustainable and Organic FarmingTrade Regulation and AntitrustTransportationWater Resources Animal Agriculture General Issues Animal Agriculture: Selected Issues in the 113th Congress (R42954, Greene)U.
S. Livestock and Poultry Feed Use and Availability: Background and Emerging Issues (R41956, Schnepf)Animal Agriculture: Selected Issues for Congress (RS22526, Becker)Dairy Market and Policy Issues (R40205, Shields)Livestock Feed Costs: Concerns and Options (RS22908, Becker) Health Issues Update on the Highly-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak of 2014-2015 (R44114, Greene) NEWBee Health: Background and Issues for Congress (R43191, Johnson)USDA Authority to Regulate On-Farm Activity (R40577, Brougher)Animal Drug User Fee Programs (RL34459, Lister)Antibiotic Use in Agriculture: Background and Legislation (R40739, Becker)Avian Influenza in Poultry and Wild Birds (RL33795, Monke & Corn)Avian Influenza: Multiple Strains Cause Different Effects Worldwide (RS21747,Monke)BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease” in North America: A Chronology of Selected Events (RL32932, Becker)BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”: Current and Proposed Safeguards (RL32199, Becker & Lister)Foot and Mouth Disease: A Threat to U.
S. Agriculture (RS20890, Segarra & Rawson)Funding Plant & Animal Health Emergencies: Transfers from the CCC (RL32504, Monke)Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress (IB10127, Becker)Private Testing of Mad Cow Disease: Legal Issues (RL32414, Vina)Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines (RL33938, Johnson)Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies, Including “Mad Cow Disease” (RL32269, Lister & Becker)Virus-Serum-Toxin Act: A Brief History and Analysis (RS22014, Monke) Treatment Meat Animal Research Center: The Animal Welfare Act and Farm Animal Research (R44091, Cowan & Greene)Table Egg Production and Hen Welfare: The UEP-HSUS Agreement, HR 3798 and S.
3239 (R42534, Greene & Cowan)Animal Welfare Act: Background and Selected Legislation (RS22493, Becker) UpdatedFederal Animal Protection Statutes: Brief Summaries (94-731, Cohen)Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Selected Issues (95-1175, Becker)Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Issues (RS21978, Becker)Horse Slaughter Prevention Bills and Issues (RS21842, Becker) Marketing Reauthorization of the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) Act in the 114th Congress (R44025, Greene) NEWUSDA’s “GIPSA Rule” on Livestock and Poultry Marketing Practices (R41673, Greene) UpdatedDairy Market and Policy Issues (R40205, Shields)Livestock Mandatory Price Reporting (RS20079, Heykoop)Potential Farm Sector Effects of 2009 H1N1 “Swine Flu”: Questions and Answers (R40575, Johnson)Recent Acquisitions of U.
S. Meat Companies (RS22980, Johnson)Livestock Marketing and Competition Issues (RL33325, Johnson & Becker) Identification Animal Identification and Meat Traceability (RL32012, Becker)Animal Identification: Overview and Issues (R40832, Schnepf)Animal Identification: Overview and Issues (RS22653, Becker) Byproducts Anaerobic Digestion: Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction and Energy Generation (R40667, Bracmort)Animal Rendering: Economics and Policy (RS21771, Becker) Aquaculture Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Issues in the 112th Congress (R41613, Buck et al.
)Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 107th Congress (IB10074, Buck)Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress (RL33459, Buck)Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 110th Congress (RL33813, Buck)Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Issues in the 111th Congress (R40172, Buck & Upton)Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Online News and Information Sources (RL30856, Buck)Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act: Reauthorization Issues for the 107th Congress (RL30215, Waldeck & Buck)Open Ocean Aquaculture (RL32694, Borgatti & Buck) Return to the CRS Reports index.
Bankruptcy Regulation of Real Estate Appraisers (RS22953, Murphy)Homestead Exemptions in Bankruptcy After the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA) (R40891, Pettit & Platte)Ch. 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code: Reorganization of a Family Farmer or Fisherman (RS20742, Jeweler) Return to the CRS Reports index. Biotechnology Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes: A Vector Control Technology for Reducing Zika Virus Transmission, (IF10401, Cowan) NEWLabeling Genetically Engineered Foods: Current Legislation, (IF10376, Cowan) NEWConstitutional Implications of State GE Food Labeling Laws (R44209, Lanza)Genetically Engineered Salmon (R43518, Upton & Cowan)Science and Technology Issues in the 113th Congress (R43114, Gottron et al.
)Unapproved Genetically Modified Wheat Discovered in Oregon: Status and Implications (R43100, Cowan)An Overview of the “Patent Trolls” Debate (R42688, Yeh)Genetically Engineered Fish and Seafood: Environmental Concerns (R41486, Buck)Deregulating Genetically Engineered Alfalfa and Sugar Beets: Legal & Administrative Responses (R41395, Cowan & Alexander)Technology Transfer: Use of Federally Funded Research and Development (RL33527, Schacht)Deregulating Genetically Engineered Alfalfa and Sugar Beets: Legal and Administrative Responses (R41396, Cowan & Alexander)Agricultural Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues (RL32809, Becker & Cowan)Biosafety Protocol for Genetically Modified Organisms: An Overview (RL30594, Segarra & Fletcher)Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues (RL33334, Cowan & Becker)Examination of the Issues Surrounding Biotechnology Patenting and Its Effects Upon Entrepreneurial Companies (RL30648, Thomas)Genetically Engineered Fish and Seafood (RL32974, Bortatti & Buck)Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods (RS20507, Vogt)StarLink Corn Controversy: Background (RS20732, Segarra & Rawson)Status of Genetically Engineered Wheat in North America (RS21620, Bass) Budget and Appropriations Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2017 Appropriations, (R44588, Monke, et al.
)Reductions in Mandatory Agricultural Conservation Programs in Appropriations Law (IF10041, Stubbs)FY2017 Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations: In Brief (R44441, Monke et al.) UpdatedInterior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2017 Appropriations (R44470, Vincent) NEWMethods of Estimating the Total Cost of Federal Regulations (R44348, Carey) NEWInterior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2016 Appropriations (R44061, Vincent) NEWFY2016 Appropriations: Selected Federal Food Safety Agencies (R44309, Johnson) NEWHow Treasury Issues Debt (R40767, Driessen)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2016 Appropriations (R44240, Monke) UpdatedU.
S. Patent and Trademark Office Appropriations Process: A Brief Explanation (RS20906, McLoughlin)Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): Appropriations and the FY2016 Budget Request (R44262, Bracecourt & Sissine)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2016 Appropriations (R44208, Elsworth & Bearden)FY2016 Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations: In Brief (R43938, Monke) UpdatedDOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: FY2016 Appropriations (R44004, Sissine)Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues (R40957, Dilger & Beth)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations (R43669, Monke et al.
)Fish and Wildlife Service: FY2015 Appropriations and Policy (R43678, Corn)Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2013 and FY2014 Appropriations (R43142, Vincent) Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations (R43509, James et al.)The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2015 and Beyond (R43472, Levit) The Budget Control Act and Trends in Discretionary Spending (RL34424, Austin)Forest Service Appropriations, FY2010-FY2014: In Brief (R43417, Hoover) UpdatedThe Federal Rulemaking Process: An Overview (RL32240, Carey, et al.
) Improper Payments and Recovery Audits: Legislation, Implementation, and Analysis(R42878, Hatch)Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Committee Responses to Reconciliation Directives (R41151, Lynch)Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases (RL31967, Austin & Levit)Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals (R41948, Tollestrup)Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview (RS20348, Tollestrup)Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects (RL34680, Brass)Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues (R42841, Stern & Carter)Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations (R43121, Behrens)Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Appropriations for FY2013 in P.
L. 113-6 (R43207, Esworthy & Bearden)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2014 Appropriations (R43110, Monke)Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014 (R43086, Sargent et al.)Budget Control Act of 2011: The Effects on Spending and the Budget Deficit (R42506, Levit & Labonte) UpdatedSequestration as a Budget Enforcement Process: Frequently Asked Questions (R42972, Lynch)The Budget Control Act of 2011: Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013 Sequester (R42675, Levit)FY2013 Continuing Resolution: Analysis of Components and Congressional Action (R42782, Tollestrup)Federal Support for Academic Research (R41895, Matthews)The “Fiscal Cliff”: Macroeconomic Consequences of Tax Increases and Spending Cuts (R42700, Gravelle)Budget Control Act of 2011: Budgetary Effects of Proposals to Replace the FY2013 Sequester (R42674, Levit)Continuing Resolutions: Overview of Components and Recent Practices (R42647, Tollestrup)Major Fiscal Issues Before Congress in FY 2013 (R42654, Levit, et al.
)Budget “Sequestration” and Selected Program Exemptions and Special Rules (R42050, Spar)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations (R42596, Monke)Fish and Wildlife Service: FY2013 Appropriations and Policy (R42466, Corn)Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension: Issues and Background (R40819, Monke) UpdatedThe Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction (R42388, Tollestrup)The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases (RL31967, Austin & Levit)Financial Services and General Government: FY2012 Appropriations (R42008, Hatch)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2012 Appropriations (R41964, Monke)The Budget Control Act of 2011 (R41965, Heniff, et al.
)The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview (RS20095, Saturno)Mandatory Spending Since 1962 (RL33074, Austin et al.)Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding (RL33053, McCarthy)Reducing the Budget Deficit: The President’s Fiscal Commission and Other Initiatives (R41784, Levit)Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations (R41633, Levit, et al.
)Fish and Wildlife Service: FY2012 Appropriations and Policy (R41928, Corn)Reducing the Budget Deficit: Tax Policy Options (R41641, Sherlock)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2010 Appropriations (R40721, Monke)OMB Controls on Agency Mandatory Spending Programs: “Administrative PAYGO” and Related Issues for Congress (R41375, Brass & Monke)Earmarks Disclosed by Congress: FY2008-FY2010 Regular Appropriations Bills (R40976, Vincent & Monke)Continuing Resolutions: Latest Action and Brief Overview of Recent Practices (RL30343, Streeter)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2011 Appropriations (R41475, Ho et al.
)FY2010 Supplemental Appropriations for Agriculture (R41255, Monke)CRS Issue Statement on Agriculture Appropriations (IS40598, Monke)Environmental Protection Agency: Appropriations for FY2011 (R41149, Esworthy et al.)FY2011 Federal Budget (R41097, Levit)Financial Services and General Government: FY2010 Appropriations (R40801, Hatch)Agriculture and FY2006 Budget Reconciliation (RS22086, Chite)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2009 Appropriations (R40000, Monke)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2008 Appropriations (RL34132, Monke)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2007 Appropriations (RL33412, Monke)Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations (RL32904, Monke)Appropriations for FY1999; Interior and Related Agencies (98-206, Greenwood)Appropriations for FY1999; U.
S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies (98-201, Chite)Appropriations for FY2000: Energy and Water Development (RL30207, Humphries & Behrens)Appropriations for FY2000: Interior and Related Agencies (RL30206, Greenwood)Appropriations for FY2000: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies (RL30201, Chite)Appropriations for FY2001: An Overview (RL30500, Bley)Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development (RL30507, Humphries & Behrens)Appropriations for FY2001: Interior and Related Agencies (RL30506, Greenwood)Appropriations for FY2001: U.
S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies (RL30501, Chite)Appropriations for FY2002: Interior and Related Agencies (RL31006, Vincent & Boren)Appropriations for FY2002: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies (RL31001, Chite)Appropriations for FY2003: Interior and Related Agencies (RL31306, Vincent & Boren)Appropriations for FY2003: Interior and Related Agencies (RL31806, Vincent & Boren)Appropriations for FY2003: U.
S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies (RL31301, Chite)Appropriations for FY2004: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies (RL31801, Chite)Appropriations for FY2005: USDA and Related Agencies (RL32301, Chite)Assistance After Hurricanes and Other Disasters: FY2004-05 Supplemental Appropriations (RL32581, Bea & Chite)Emergency Funding for Ag: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations FY1989-2005 (RL31095, Chite)Environmental Protection Agency: Highlights of the President’s FY2007 Request (RS22386, Bearden & Esworthy)Farm Commodity Programs in the President’s FY2010 Budget (R40442, Monke)Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2007 (RL33345, Davey, et al.
)Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2006 (RL32799, Davey)Federal R&D Funding Under a Continuing Resolution (RS22523, Davey, et al.)Food and Agriculture Provisions in the FY1997 Supplemental Appropriations Act (98-600, Chite)FY2006 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (RS22071, Monke)FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (RS22382, Monke)FY2009 Budget Request for the USDA (RS22621, Monke)Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2008 Appropriations (RL34011, Vincent, et al.
)Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations (RL32893, Vincent)Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2007 Appropriations (RL33399, Vincent & Boren)Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Status and Issues (97-792, Zinn)Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2000 Federal Budget: A Description of Programs and Funding (RS20096, Bearden)Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2001 Federal Budget: A Description of Programs and Funding (RS20492, Bearden)Natural Resources and Environment Function in the FY2003 Federal Budget: An Overview of Programs and Funding (RS21154, Bearden)Superfund and Natural Resource Damages (RS20772, Reisch)Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for FY1998 (98-123, Nowels) Climate Change U.
S. Carbon Dioxide Emission Trends and the Role of the Clean Power Plan (R44451, Ramseur) NEWFunding for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) at DOE: In Brief (R44472, Folger) NEWRecovery Act Funding for DOE Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Projects (R44387, Folger) NEWEPA’s Clean Power Plan for Existing Power Plants: Frequently Asked Questions (R44341, McCarthy et al.) UpdatedGreenhouse Gas Pledges by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (R44092, Leggett)Methane: An Introduction to Emission Sources and Reduction Strategies (R43860, Lattanzio et al.
) UpdatedLife-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Assessment of Coal and Natural Gas in the Power Sector (R44090, Lattanzio)Climate Change Adaptation by Federal Agencies: An Analysis of Plans and Issues for Congress (R43915, Leggett)State CO2 Emission Rate Goals in EPA’s Proposed Rule for Existing Power Plants (R43652, Ramseur)EPA’s Proposed Greenhouse Gas Regulations: Implications for the Electric Power Sector(R43621, Campbell)EPA’s Proposed Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Existing Power Plants: Frequently Asked Questions (R43572, McCarthy et al.
)The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI): Budget Authority and Request, FY2010-FY2015 (R41845, Lattanzio)Drought in the United States: Causes and Current Understanding (R43407, Folger & Cody)Carbon Capture: A Technology Assessment (R41325, Folger)Climate Change Legislation in the 113th Congress (R43230, Ramseur)Federal Climate Change Funding from FY2008 to FY2014 (R43227, Leggett et al.)Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Research, Development, and Demonstration at the U.
S. Department of Energy (R42496, Folger)President Obama’s Climate Action Plan (R43120, Leggett, et al.)EPA Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Plants: Many Questions, Some Answers (R43127, McCarthy)The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policymakers (R41836, Ramseur)Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future (R42613, Meltz)China’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Policies (R41919, Leggett)Comparison of Climate Change Adaptation Provisions in S.
1733 and H.R. 2454 (R40911, Ho)EPA’s BACT Guidance for Greenhouse Gases from Stationary Sources (R41505, Parker & McCarthy)Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use (RL33970, Blodgett & Parker)Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy (R41371, Bracmort et al.)Climate Investment Funds CIFs: An Overview (R41302, Lattanzio)EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: Congressional Responses and Options (R41212, McCarthy & Parker)Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress (R41153, O’Rourke)International Agreements on Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions (R41175, Barbour)Deforestation and Climate Change (R41144, Gorte & Sheikh)Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision: A Chronology (R41103, Meltz)Climate Change: EU and Proposed U.
S. Approaches to Carbon Leakage and WTO Implications (R40914, Parker & Grimmett)Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes in the United States (R40097, Folger)Memorandum: International Governance of Geoengineering (M-031110, Lattanzio & Barbour)Memorandum: Comparison of Selected Senate Energy and Climate Change Proposals (M-061610, Yacobucci)China and the United States — A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies (R41287, Campbell)Climate Change ad the EU Emmissions Trading Scheme: Looking to 2020 (R41049, Parker)Potential Implications of a Carbon Offset Program to Farmers and Landowners (R41086, Johnson et al.
)Cars and Climate: What Can EPA Do To Control Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources? (R40506, McCarthy)Status of the Copenhagen Climate Change Negotiations (R40910, Leggett & Lattanzio)Climate Change: Comparison of the Cap-and-Trade Provisions in H.R. 2454 and S. 1733(R40896, Yacobucci et al.)Agriculture and Forestry Provisions in Climate Legislation in the 111th Congress (R40994, Johnson)Agriculture and Forestry Provisions in Climate Change Legislation (S.
3036) (RS22834, Johnson)Nitrous Oxide from Agricultural Sources: Potential Role in Greenhouse Gas Emission Reducation and Ozone Recovery (R40874, Bracmort)Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected? (RS22970, Leggett & Logan)Biochar: Examination of an Emerging Concept to Mitigate Climate Change (R40186, Bracmort)Capturing CO2 from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Challenges for a Comprehensive Strategy (RL34621, Parker et al.
)Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) (RL33801, Folger)Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress (RL34059, Folger)“Carbon Leakage” and Trade: Issues and Approaches (R40100, Parker & Blodgett)Carbon Tax and Greenhouse Gas Control: Options and Considerations for Congress (R40242, Ramseur & Parker)Climate Change: Action by States to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RL33812, Ramseur)Climate Change: Comparison of S.
2191 as Reported (now S. 3036) with Proposed Boxer Amendment (RL34515, Yacobucci & Parker)Climate Change: Costs and Benefits of S.2191 (RL34489, Parker & Yacobucci)Climate Change: Costs and Benefits of the Cap-and-Trade Provisions of H.R. 2454 (R40809, Parker & Yacobucci)Climate Change: Current Issues and Policy Tools (RL34513, Leggett)Climate Change: Design Approaches for a Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program (RL33799, Parker)Climate Change: Federal Expenditures for Science and Technology (RL32997, Simpson & Justus)Climate Change: Federal Laws and Policies Related to Greenhouse Gas Reductions (RL31931, Yacobucci & Parker)Climate Change: Federal Research, Technology, and Related Programs (RL30452, Simpson)Climate Change: Issues Underlying Negotiations at the Bali Conference of Parties (RL34260, Fletcher et al.
)Climate Change: Kyoto Protocol and International Actions (RL33826, Fletcher & Parker)Climate Change: Potential Regulation of Stationary Greenhouse Gas Sources Under the Clean Air Act (R40585, Parker & McCarthy)Climate Change: Role of the U.S. Agriculture Sector (RL33898, Johnson)Climate Change: Science Update 2007 (RL34266, Leggett)Climate Change and the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS): Kyoto and Beyond (RL34150, Parker)Climate Change and International Deforestation: Legislative Analysis (RL34634, Shiekh & Gorte)Climate Change Litigation: A Survey (RL32764, Meltz)Climate Change Legislation in the 110th Congress (RL34067, Ramseur & Yacobucci)Community Acceptance of Carbon Capture and Sequestrian Infrastructure: Siting Challenges (RL34601, Parfomak)Estimates of Carbon Mitigation Potential from Agricultural and Forestry Activities (R40236, Johnson et al.
)Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2010 (R40710, Sargent)Federal Research and Development Funding: Possible Impacts of Operating Under a Continuing Resolution (RS22978, Shea & Morgan)Forest Carbon Markets: Potential and Drawbacks (RL34560, Gorte & Ramseur)Global Climate Change and Wildlife (RS22597, Sheikh et al.)Global Climate Change: Status of Negotiations (RS22899, Fletcher)Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol (RL30692, Fletcher)Global Climate Change: The Role of Energy Efficiency (RL30414, Sissine)Global Climate Change: The Role of U.
S. Foreign Assistance (97-1015, Tarnoff)Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions — Status, Trends and Projections (98-235, Blodgett & Parker)Greenhouse Gas Reduction: Cap-and-Trade Bills in the 110th Congress (RL33846, Parker & Yacobucci)Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Conflicting Situations, Conflicting Perspectives (RL32721, Parker & Blodgett)Greenhouse Legislation: Summary and Analysis of H.
R. 2454 as Passed by the House of Representatives (R40643-1, Holt & Whitney)Greenhouse Legislation: Summary and Analysis of H.R. 2454 as Reported by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce (R40643, Holt & Whitney)Market-Based Greenhouse Gas Control: Selected Proposals in the 111th Congress (R40556, Ramseur et al.)Measuring and Monitoring Carbon in the Agricultural and Forestry Sectors (RS22964, Gorte & Johnson)Potential Offset Supply in a Cap-and-Trade Program (RL34705, Ramseur)Regulating a Carbon Market: Issues Raised By the European Carbon and U.
S. Sulfur Dioxide Allowance Markets (RL34488, Jickling & Parker)Role of Offsets in a Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap-and-Trade Program: Potential Benefits and Concerns (RL34436, Ramseur)Summary of Waxman-Market Draft Greenhouse Gas Legislation (R40597, Holt)Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision: Massachusetts v. EPA (RS22665, Meltz)U.S. Global Climate Change Policy: Evolving Views on Cost, Competitiveness, and Comprehensiveness (RL30024, Parker & Blodgett)U.
S.-centric Chronology of the International Climate Change Negotiations (R40001, Leggett)United States and Europe: Current Issues (RS22163, Mix) Commodities Potential Use of Industrial Hemp in Cannabidiol Products, (IF10391, Johnson) NEWU.S. Peanut Program and Issues (R44156, Shields) UpdatedU.S. Sugar Program Fundamentals (R43998, McMinimy) UpdatedMarijuana: Medical and Retail— An Abbreviated View of Selected Legal Issues (R43437, Gavey & Doyle)State Marijuana Legalization Initiatives: Implications for Federal Law Enforcement (R43164, Finklea & Sacco).
Sugar Program: The Basics (R42535, Jurenas)Fruits, Vegetables, and Other Specialty Crops: Selected Federal Programs (R42771, Johnson)Sugar Program Proposals for the 2012 (R42551, Jurenas)Asian Soybean Rust: Background and Issues (RL32225, Schnepf)Background on Sugar Policy Issues (RL33541, Jurenas)FDA Regulation of Tobacco Products: A Policy and Legal Analysis (RL32619, Redhead & Burrows)Hemp As an Agricultural Commodity (RL32725, Johnson)Implications of Reactivating the Dairy Export Incentive Program (R40585, Shields & Hanrahan)Specialty Crop Issues in the 109th Congress (RL32951, Rawson)Tobacco: Selected Legal Issues (RL33719, Burrows)U.
S. Tobacco Production, Consumption and Export Trends (RL30947, Womach) Marketing U.S. Grain Standards Act: Potential Reauthorization in the 114th Congress (R43803, Shields) UpdatedFarm Product ‘Check-off’ Programs: A Constitutional Analysis (RL32957, Vina)Farmers’ Markets: The USDA Role (RS21652, Becker)Federal Farm Promotion (“Check-Off”) Programs (95-353, Becker)High Agricultural Commodity Prices: What Are the Issues (RL34474, Schnepf)Seafood Marketing: Combating Fraud and Deception (RL34124, Buck) Trading CFTC Reauthorization in the 109th Congress (RS22028, Jickling)Proposed Transaction Fee on Futures Contracts (RS22415, Jickling) Return to the CRS Reports index.
Disaster Impact and Assistance Federal Disaster Assistance for Agriculture, (IF10565, Stubbs) NEWDrought Legislation: Comparison of Selected Provisions in H.R. 2898 and S. 1894 (R44180, Stern et al.)In Focus: Overview of Farm Safety Net Programs (IF10191, Shields)Proposals to Reduce Premium Subsidies for Federal Crop Insurance (R43951, Shields)Major Disaster Declarations for Snow Assistance and Severe Winter Storms: An Overview (R43802, Lindsey)Crop Insurance Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.
L. 113-79) (R43494, Shields)Emergency Water Assistance During Drought: Federal Non-Agricultural Programs (R43408, Carter et al.)Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies (R41981, McCarthy & Brown)Federal Crop Insurance for Specialty Crops: Background and Legislative Proposals (R42813, Shields)FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer (RL34146, McCarthy)CRS Issue Statement on Disaster Risk Financing (IS40291, King)FY2010 Supplemental for Wars, Disaster Assistance, Haiti Relief, and Other Programs (R41232, Belasco et al.
)Renegotiation of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement for Federal Crop Insurance (R40966, Shields)Agricultural Disaster Assistance (RS21212, Shields) UpdatedCommercial Fishery Disaster Assistance (RL34209, Upton)Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations (R40708, Lindsay & Murray)Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations (RL31999, Bea)Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data (RL33226, Murray & Lindsey)Federal Crop Insurance: Background and Issues (R40532, Shields)Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries (RL31734, Jordan)Federal Food Assistance in Disasters: Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (RL33102, Richardson)FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Hurricane Katrina Relief (RL33298, Irwin & Nowels)Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Fishing and Aquaculture – Damage and Recovery (RS22241, Buck)Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration (RS22276, Zinn)International Crises and Disasters: U.
S. Humanitarian Assistance, Budget Trends, and Issues for Congress (RL33769, Margesson)Midwest Floods of 2008: Potential Impact on Agriculture (RL34583, Schnepf)Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act: Provisions and Changes to Preexisting Law (RL33589, Lister & Gottron)Ports in Louisiana: New Orleans, South Louisiana, and Baton Rouge (RS22297, Cieslak)U.S. Agriculture After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Status and Issues (RL33075, Schnepf & Chite)A Whole-Farm Crop Disaster Program: Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE) (R40452, Shields) Return to the CRS Reports index.
Economy Derivatives: Introduction and Legislation in the 114th Congress (R44351, Miller) NEWThe Glass-Steagall Act: A Legal and Policy Analysis (R44349, Carpenter et al.) NEWCommodity Futures Trading Commission: Proposed Reauthorization in the 114th Congress (R44231, Miller)Insurance Regulation: Background, Overview, and Legislation in the 114th Congress (R44046, Webel)The Economic Implications of the Long-Term Federal Budget Outlook (RL32747, Labonte)Standard & Poor’s Downgrade of U.
S. Government Long-Term Debt (R41955, Jickling)Treasury Securities and the U.S. Sovereign Credit Default Swap Market (R41932, Austin & Miller)Individual Mandate and Related Information Requirements under PPACA (R41331, Newman)PPACA: A Brief Overview of the Law, Implementation, and Legal Challenges (R41664, Chaikind et al.)The Bush Tax Cuts and the Economy (R41393, Hungerford)Farm Price-Cost Squeeze and U.
S. Farm Policy (R40761, Shields)Farm-To-Food Price Dynamics (R40621, Schnepf)U.S. Farm Economy (R40152, Schnepf) UpdatedU.S. Farm Economy (RS21970, Schnepf) Return to the CRS Reports index. Energy Generally Energy Legislation: Comparison of Selected Provisions in H.R. 8 and S. 2012 (R44291, Yacobucci) NEWOil Sands and the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund: The Definition of “Oil” and Related Issues for Congress (R43128, Ramseur) NEWDOT’s Federal Pipeline Safety Program: Background and Key Issues for Congress (R44201, Parfomak)Keystone XL Pipeline: Overview and Recent Developments (R43787, Parfomak, et al.
)An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions (R43148, Ratner & Tierman)EPA’s Proposed Clean Power Plan: Conversion to Mass-Based Emission Targets (R43942, Ramseur)Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues (R43568, Marples & Gravelle)Clean Coal Loan Guarantees and Tax Incentives: Issues in Brief (R43690, Folger & Sherlock)The Northeast Heating Oil Supply, Demand, and Factors Affecting Its Use (R43511, Andrews & Perl)U.
S. Crude Oil Export Policy: Background and Considerations (R43442, Brown et al.)Energy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79) (R43416, Schnepf) UpdatedWinter Fuels Outlook 2013-2014 (R42090, Piron)Federal Permitting and Oversight of Export of Fossil Fuels (R43231, Vann et al.)U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes (R42074, Ratner et al.)Energy-Water Nexus: The Energy Sector’s Water Use (R43199, Carter)Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 113th Congress (R43206, Sherlock)Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues (R42756, Behrens)Energy Policy: Election Year Issues and Legislative Proposals (R42756, Behrens)Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically (R42666, Canis)U.
S. Oil Imports and Exports (R42465, Nerurkar)Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress (R41769, Sherlock & Crandall-Hollick)Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues (R41668, Parfomak, et al.)Energy Tax Incentives: Measuring Value Across Different Types of Energy Resources (R41953, Sherlock)The Role of Federal Gasoline Excise Taxes in Public Policy (R40808, Pirog)EPA’s Regulation of Coal-Fired Power: Is a “Train Wreck” Coming? (R41914, McCarthy, et al.
)Keeping America’s Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress (R41536, Parfomak)Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 111th Congress (R40999, Sherlock & Marples)Energy Tax Policy: Historical Perspectives on and Current Status of Energy Tax Expenditures (R41227, Sherlock)Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E): Background, Status, and Selected Issues for Congress (RL34497, Stine)Energy Costs and Agriculture (RL30943, Heykoop)Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: A Summary of Major Provisions (RL34294, Sissine)Energy Policy Act of 2002: Summary of S.
1766 as Introduced (RL31276, Holt & Glover)Energy Policy: Historical Overview, Conceptual Framework, and Continuing Issues (RL31720, Bamberger)Energy Projects on Federal Lands: Leasing and Authorization (R40806, Vann)Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues (RL33578, Lazzari)Energy Use in Agriculture: Background and Issues (RL32677, Schnepf)Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D (RS22858, Sissine) UpdatedU.
S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers (R40187, Behrens & Glover) Renewable Energy USDA Initiative Is Funding New Ethanol Infrastructure, (IF10377, McMinimy)Residential Energy Tax Credits: Overview and Analysis (R42089, Crandall-Hollick & Sherlock) NEWThe Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Waiver Authority and Modification of Volumes (R44045, Bracmort) UpdatedThe Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): In Brief (R43325, Bracemort) UpdatedTier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards (R43497, Lattanzio & McCarthy)China and the United States—A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies (R41748, Campbell)The Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit: In Brief (R43453, Sherlock)Production Tax Credit Incentives for Renewable Electricity: Financial Comparison of Selected Policy Options(R43340, Brown)Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs (R40913, Cunningham & Roberts)Analysis of Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)(R42824, Yacobucci)Algae’s Potential as a Transportation Biofuel (R42122, Bracmort)DOD Alternative Fuels: Policy, Initiatives and Legislative Activity (R42859, Blakeley)Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Technology Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs (R42566, Cunningham et al.
) UpdatedU.S. Renewable Electricity: How Does Wind Generation Impact Competitive Power Markets? (R42818, Brown)Carbon Tax: Deficit Reduction and Other Considerations (R42731, Ramseur et al.)U.S. Renewable Electricity: How Does the Production Tax Credit (PTC) Impact Wind Markets? (R42576, Brown)The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act (R42568, Andrews et. al.)Renewable Energy Programs and the Farm Bill: Status and Issues (R41985, Schnepf)Federal Agency Authority to Contract for Electric Power and Renewable Energy Supply (R41960, Andrews)U.
S. Renewable Electricity Generation: Resources and Challenges (R41954, Brown & Whitney)Is Biopower Carbon Neutral? (R41603, Bracmort) UpdatedCellulosic Ethanol: Feedstocks, Conversion Technologies, Economics, and Policy Options (R41460, Schnepf)Biomass Feedstocks for Biopower: Background and Selected Issues (R41440, Bracmort) UpdatedAgriculture-Based Biofuels: Overview and Emerging Issues (R41282, Schnepf)Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers (R41106, Bracmort) UpdatedCRS Issue Statement on Agriculture-Based Biofuels (IS40254, Schnepf)Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting (R40175, Vann)Intermediate-Level Blends of Ethanol in Gasoline, and the Ethanol “Blend Wall” (R40445, Yacobucci)Biofuels Incentives: Summary of Federal Programs (RL33572, Yacobucci)Agriculture-Based Renewable Energy Production (RL32712, Schnepf)Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress (R40168, Yacobucci)Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs (RL40110, Yacobucci)Biofuels Provisions in H.
R. 3221 and H.R. 6: A Side-by-Side Comparison (RL34136, Yacobucci)Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation (R40529, Bracmort & Gorte) Bush Energy Policy: Overview of Major Proposals and Legislative Action (RL31096, Holt)Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard (R40460, Yacobucci & Bracmort)Cellulosic Biofuels: Analysis of Policy Issues for Congress (RL34738, Capeheart)Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 109th Congress (RL32860, Sissine)Ethanol and Biofuels: Agriculture, Infrastructure, and Market Constraints Related to Expanded Production (RL33928, Yacobucci & Schnepf)Ethanol: Economic and Policy Issues (R40488, Capeheart)Ethanol and Other Biofuels: Potential for U.
S.-Brazil Energy Cooperation (RL34191, Seelke & Yacobucci)European Union Biofuels Policy and Agriculture: An Overview (RS22404, Schnepf)Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues (RL30369, Yacobucci & Womach)Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues (RL33290, Yacobucci)Renewable Energy Policy: Tax Credit, Budget and Regulatory Issues (RL33588, Sissine)Selected Issues Related to an Expansion of the Renewable Fuel Standard (R40155, Yacobucci & Capeheart)Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) (RS22870, Yacobucci)Wind Power in the United States: Technology, Economic, and Policy Issues (RL34546, Logan & Kaplan) Return to the CRS Reports index.
Environmental Issues Generally Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Regulatory Issues (R41760, Tiemann & Vann)Preemption in Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): Side-by-Side Analysis of S. 697 and H.R. 2576 (R44066, Wyatt)S. 1961 and H.R. 4024: Legislative Responses to a Chemical Storage Facility Spill (R43441, Copeland & Tiemann)Proposed Reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the 113th Congress: S.
1009 Compared with S. 696 and Current Statute (R43136, Yen)Hydraulic Fracturing: Selected Legal Issues (R43152, Vann et al.)Oil and Chemical Spills: Federal Emergency Response Framework (R43251, Bearden & Ramseur)The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative: Background and Issues (R43249, Sheikh)Background on and Implementation of the Bevill and Bentsen Exclusions in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: EPA Authorities to Regulate “Special Wastes” (R43149, Luther)The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements (RL31905, Schierow)Chemical Facility Security: Issues and Options for the 113th Congress (R42918, Shea)Federal Programs Related to Indoor Pollution by Chemicals (R42620, Schierow & Bearden)The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary (RL32683, Schierow)The Army Corps of Engineers’ Nationwide Permits Program: Issues and Regulatory Developments (97-223, Copeland)Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: A Summary of Superfund Cleanup Authorities and Related Provisions of the Act (R41039, Bearden)EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track? (R41561, McCarthy et al.
) UpdatedEnvironmental Regulation and Agriculture (R41622, Stubbs et al.)Everglades Restoration and the River of Grass Land Acquisition (R41383, Stern et al.)CRS Issue Statement on Environmental Cleanup and Waste Management (IS40275, Ramseur)Oil Pollution Act of 1990: Liability of Responsible Parties (R41266, Nichols)2010 Oil Spill: Minerals Management Service and National Environmental Policy Act (R41265, Alexander)Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act for Disaster Response, Recovery, and Mitigation Projects (RL34650, Luther)Environmental Laws: Summaries of Statutes Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (RL30798, Fletcher)Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced? (RL34384, Esworthy)National Environmental Policy Act: Background and Implementation (RL33152, Luther)National Environmental Policy Act: Streamlining NEPA (RL33267, Luther)Natural Resources Policy: Management, Institutions and Issues (RL33806, Vincent & Carter)Natural Resources: Selected Issues for the 109th Congress (RL32699, Carter & Vincent)Overview of National Environmental Policy Act Requirements (RS20621, Alexander)Superfund: Overview and Selected Issues (RL33426, Ramseur & Reisch) Animal Agriculture Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer (RL32948, Copeland) Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: EPA’s Air Compliance Agreement (RL32947, Copeland)Animal Waste and Hazardous Substances: Current Laws and Legislative Issues (RL33691, Copeland)Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA Regulation of CAFOs (RL31851, Copeland)Animal Waste and Water Quality: EPA’s Response to the Waterkeeper Alliance Court Decision on Regulation of CAFOs (RL33656, Copeland) Conservation The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System: A Brief Overview (R42614, Johnson)Conservation Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.
L. 113-79) (R43504, Stubbs)Emergency Assistance for Agricultural Land Rehabilitation (R42854, Stubbs) UpdatedConservation Reserve Program (CRP): Status and Issues (R42783, Stubbs)Conservation Compliance and U.S. Farm Policy (R42459, Stubbs) UpdatedAgricultural Conservation and the Next Farm Bill (R42093,Stubbs)2008 Farm Bill: Analysis of Tax-Related Conservation Reserve Program Proposals (RS22910, Pettit)Agricultural Conservation Issues in the 111th Congress (R40692, Stubbs)Agricultural Conservation Programs: A Scorecard (RL32940, Zinn & Cowan)Agricultural Conservation: A Guide to Programs (R40763, Stubbs) UpdatedConservation and Reinvestment Act (H.
R. 201) and a Related Initiative in the 106th Congress (RL30444, Zinn & Corn)Conservation Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill (RL34557, Cowan & Johnson)Conservation Reserve Program: Legal Analysis of Proposed Legislation to Change the Structure and Taxation of Benefits Received (RS22851, Pettit)Conservation Reserve Program: Status and Current Issues (RS21613, Cowan)Conservation Reserve Program Payments: Self-Employment Income, Rental Income, or Something Else? (RL34457, Pettit)Conservation Security Program in the 2002 Farm Bill (RS21739, Johnson)Conservation Security Program: Implementation & Current Issues (RS21740, Cowan)Debt-for-Nature Initiatives and the Tropical Forest Conservation Act (RL31286, Sheikh)Environmental Quality Incentives Program: Status and Issues (R40197, Stubbs)Farm Protection Program: Status and Current Issues (RS22565, Johnson)Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Status and Issues (RS21503, Zinn)Land Conversion in the Northern Plains (RL33950, Stubbs)Land & Water Conservation Fund: Overview, Funding History, Current Issues (RL33531, Vincent)Mandatory Funding for Agriculture Conservation Programs (RS22243, Zinn)Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout: Managing Under the Endangered Species Act (98-666, Buck)Reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act: A Comparison of Pending Bills and a Proposed Amendment with Current Law (RL33309, Sheikh et al.
)Resource Conservation Title of the 2002 Farm Bill: Comparison of New Law with Bills and Prior Laws (RL31486, Zinn)Soil and Water Conservation: An Overview (RL33556, Zinn)South Florida Ecosystem Restoration and the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (RS20702, Sheikh & Carter)Technical Assistance for Agriculture Conservation (RL34069, Stubbs)Wetlands: An Overview of Issues (RL33483, Zinn & Copeland)Wilderness Laws: Permitted and Prohibited Uses (RL33827, Gorte) Air 2013 National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.
5): Designating Nonattainment Areas (R43953, Esworthy)EPA’s Clean Power Plan: Implications for the Electric Power Sector (R44265, Campbell)Clean Air Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview (R43851, McCarthy)An Overview of Air Quality Issues in Natural Gas Systems (R42986, Lattanzio) UpdatedU.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Recent Trends and Factors (R43795, Ramseur)Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA’s 2015 Revision (R43092, McCarthy)EPA’s Proposed Wood Stove / Wood Heater Regulations: Frequently Asked Questions (R43489, McCarthy)The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particulate Matter (PM): EPA’s 2006 Revisions and Associated Issues (RL34762, Esworthy)Air Quality: EPA’s 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard (R42934, Esworthy)Clean Air Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview (R42895, McCarthy)Air Quality: EPA’s 2012 Proposed Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard (R42671, Esworthy)EPA’s Boiler MACT: Controlling Emissions of Hazardous Air Pollutants (R41459, McCarthy)Air Quality: EPA’s 2006 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard (RL33254, McCarthy)Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress (RL33552, McCarthy)Clean Air Act Issues in the 110th Congress: Implementation and Oversight (RL33776, McCarthy)Clean Air Act Issues in the 111th Congress (R40145, McCarthy)Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA’s Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills (RL33165, McCarthy & Parker)Methyl Bromide and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion (RS20863, Morrissey)Regulation of Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: State and Federal Standards (RS22788, Yacobucci) Water EPA Policies Concerning Integrated Planning and Affordability of Water Infrastructure (R44223, Copeland) NEWSafe Drinking Water Act (SDWA): A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements (RL31243, Tiemann) NEWEPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed “Waters of the United States” Rule: Congressional Response and Options (R43943, Copeland)Nutrients in Agricultural Production: A Water Quality Overview (R43919, Stubbs) UpdatedWater Quality Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview (R43867, Copeland) UpdatedAllocation of Wastewater Treatment Assistance: Formula and Other Changes (RL31073, Copeland) UpdatedOcean Dumping Act: A Summary of the Law (RS20028, Copeland)Wastewater Treatment: Overview and Background (98-323, Copeland)EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States” (R43455, Copeland)Green Infrastructure and Issues in Managing Urban Stormwater (R43131, Copeland)Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF): Program Overview and Issues (RS22037, Tiemann)Whether Logging Road Runoff Requires a Clean Water Act Permit: Decker v.
Northwest Environmental Defense Center (R42587, Meltz & Copeland)Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview (R42883, Copeland)Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) (R42752, Copeland)Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA’s Regulatory Program (97-290, Copeland)The Supreme Court Allows Pre-enforcement Review of Clean Water Act Section 404 Compliance Orders: Sackett v.
EPA (R42450, Meltz)Cooling Water Intake Structures: Summary of EPA’s Proposed Rule (R41786, Copeland)Water Quality Issues in the 112th Congress: Oversight and Implementation (R41594, Copeland)Water Quality Bills in the Remainder of the 111th Congress (R41517, Copeland)Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance (RL33705, Ramseur)Water Quality Issues in the 111th Congress: Oversight and Implementation (R40098, Copeland)Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria on Oil and Gas Development (R41132, Hagerty)Potential Stafford Act Declarations for the Gulf Coast Oil Spill: Issues for Congress (R41234, McCarthy)Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Coastal Wetland and Wildlife Impacts and Response (R41311, Corn & Copeland)Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Disaster: Risk, Recovery and Insurance Implications (R41320, King)Tax Issues and the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill: Legal Analysis of Payments and Tax Relief Policy Options (R41323, Sherlock et al.
)Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Highlighted Actions and Issues (R41407, Hagerty & Ramseur)Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Selected Issues for Congress (R41262, Hagerty & Ramseur)Safe Drinking Water Act: Selected Regulatory and Legislative Issues (RL34201, Tiemann)Clean Water Act: A Summary of the Law (RL30030, Copeland)Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues (97-488, Copeland)Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads of Pollutants (97-831, Copeland)Clean Water Action Plan: Background and Early Implementation (98-150, Copeland)Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration: Recommended Corps Plan (RS22110, Zinn)Coastal Louisiana: Attempting to Restore an Ecosystem (RL32673, Zinn)Controversies over Redefining “Fill Material” Under the Clean Water Act (RL31411, Copeland)Water Quality: Implementing the Clean Water Act (RL33466, Copeland)Water Quality Initiatives and Agriculture (RL30437, Copeland)Water Quality Issues in the 110th Congress: Oversight and Implementation (RL33800, Copeland)Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act Is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos v.
United States (RL33263, Meltz & Copeland) Pesticides Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides (R43900, Johnson & Corn)Bee Health: The Role of Pesticides (R42855, Schierow et al.)Pesticide Law: A Summary of the Statutes (RL31921, Schierow)Pesticide Registration and Tolerance Fees: An Overview (RL32218, Esworthy)Pesticide Use and Water Quality: Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict? (RL32884, Copeland) Updated Wildlife Invasive Species: Control Options and Issues for Congress (R44011, Corn & Johnson) NEWInvasive Species: Issues in Brief (R44049, Corn & Johnson)Hunting and Fishing: Issues and Legislation in the 113th Congress (R43629, Corn)The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade (R42067, Alexander)Wilderness: Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress (R41610, Hoover et al.
)Invasive Species: Major Laws and the Role of Selected Federal Agencies (R43258, Corn & Johnson)The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 113th Congress: New and Recurring Issues (R42945, Buck et al.)Hunting, Fishing, Recreational Shooting, and Other Wildlife Measures: S. 3525 (R42751, Corn et al.)The Gray Wolf and the Endangered Species Act (ESA): A Brief Legal History (R41730, Alexander)The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 112th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices (R41608, Buck et al.
)Asian Carp and the Great Lakes Region (R41082, Buck et al.)Ballast Water Management to Combat Invasive Species (RL32344, Buck)2010 Oil Spill: Criminal Liability Under Wildlife Laws (R41308, Alexander)Endangered Species Act in the 111th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices (R40185, Buck et al.)Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and Department of Defense Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law (RL31415, Baldwin)Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program: Status and Current Issues (RS22603, Stubbs & Zinn)Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations (RL34238, Alexander & Corn)Endangered Species Act: A Primer (RL31654, Baldwin, et al.
)Endangered Species Act and Claims for Property Rights “Takings” (RL31796, Meltz)Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and Department of Defense Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals (RL31415, Baldwin)Endangered Species Act and “Sound Science” (RL32992, Buck & Corn)Endangered Species Act in the 109th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices (RL33468, Buck & Corn)Endangered Species Act in the 110th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices (RL33779, Buck, et al.
)Endangered Species Act Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead (R40169, Alexander & Buck)Endangered Species List Revisions: A Summary of Delisting and Downlisting (98-32, Noecker)Global Climate Change and Wildlife (RS22597, Scheikh, et al.)Invasive Non-Native Species: Background and Issues for Congress (RL30123, Corn, et al.)Marine Mammal Protection Act: Reauthorization Issues (RL30120, Buck)Multinational Species Conservation Fund (RS21157, Sheikh & Corn)Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout: Managing Under the Endangered Species Act (98-666, Buck)Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (RL34641, Alexander & Corn)Reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act: A Comparison of Pending Bills and a Proposed Amendment with Current Law (RL33309, Sheikh et al.
)What Happens to the Bald Eagle Now That It Is Not Protected Under the Endangered Species Act? (RL34174, Alexander)Wilderness: Overview and Statistics (RL31447, Gorte)Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program: Status and Current Issues (R40051, Stubbs) Other Issues The Office of Surface Mining’s Proposed Stream Protection Rule: An Overview (R44150, Copeland) UpdatedHeritage Areas: Background, Proposals, and Current Issues (RL33462, Vincent & Comay) UpdatedShale Energy Technology Assessment: Current and Emerging Water Practices (R43636, Tiemann et al.
)Oil Sands and the Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues (R42611, Ramseur et al.)Environmental Requirements Addressed During Corps Civil Works Project Planning: Background and Issues for Congress (R43209, Luther)Injurious Species Listings Under the Lacey Act: A Legal Briefing (R43170, Alexander)The Lacey Act: Compliance Issues Related to Importing Plants and Plant Products (R42119, Sheikh)Everglades Restoration: Federal Funding and Implementation Progress (R42007, Stern)Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies (RS21421, Copeland)Hydraulic Fracturing: Chemical Disclosure Requirements (R42461, Murrill & Vann)Oil and Natural Gas Industry Tax Issues in the FY2010 Budget Proposal (R41669, Pirog)Tax Reform: An Overview of Proposals in the 112th Congress (R41591, Bickley)Civil Works Program of the Army Corps of Engineers: A Primer (RS20866, Carter & Cody)Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress (RL34580, Folger, et al.
)Managing Regional Growth: Is There a Role for Congress? (RS20011, Zinn)Marine Protected Areas: An Overview (RL32154, Zinn & Buck)Precision Ag and Site-Specific Management: Current Status and Emerging Policy Issues (RL30630, Cowan)Precision Agriculture: a Primer (RS20515, Cowan)Survey of Recent State Policies to Manage Growth and Protect Open Space (RL31656, Zinn) Return to the CRS Reports index.
Estate Planning and Taxation Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions (“Tax Extenders”): In Brief (R43517, Gravelle & Sherlock) NEWRecently Expired Community Assistance-Related Tax Provisions (“Tax Extenders”): In Brief (R43541, Lowry)Cash Versus Accrual Accounting: Tax Policy Considerations (R44002, Gnanarajah & Keightley)Tax Provisions that Expired in 2014 (“Tax Extenders”) (R43898, Sherlock)Selected Recently Expired Individual Tax Provisions (“Extenders”): In Brief (R43688, Gravelle)Memorandum: IRS Final Rule on Treatment of Expenditures for Repair/Maintenance of Depreciable Assets(Gary Guenther)Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues (R43568, Marples & Gravelle)Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions (“Tax Extenders”) (R43510, Gavelle et al.
) UpdatedBonus Depreciation: Economic and Budgetary Issues (R43432, Gravelle)The Mortgage Interest and Property Tax Deductions: Analysis and Options (R41596, Keightley)Tax Provisions Expiring in 2013 (“Tax Extenders”) (R43124, Sherlock)Tax Reform in the 113th Congress: An Overview of Proposals (R43060, Sherlock)The Federal Estate, Gift, and Generation-Skipping Transfer Taxes(95-416, Lanza)Research Tax Credit: Current Law, Legislation in the 113th Congress, and Policy Issues (RL31181, Guenther)An Overview of the Tax Provisions in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (R42894, Crandall-Hollick)Tax Deductions for Individuals: A Summary (R42872, Lowry)An Overview of Tax Provisions Expiring in 2012 (R42485, Crandall-Hollick)An Overview and Comparison of Proposals to Extend the “Bush Tax Cuts”: S.
3412, S. 3413, H.R. 8 (R42622, Crandall-Hollick)501(c)(4)s and the Gift Tax: Legal Analysis (R42655, Luckey & Lunder)Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Expensing Allowances: Current Law, Legislative Proposals in the 112th Congress, and Economic Effects (RL31852, Guenther)Asset Distribution of Taxable Estates: An Analysis (RS20593, Maguire)Calculating Estate Tax Liability: 2001-2011 and Beyond (RL33718, Noto)Capital Gains Taxes: An Overview (96-769, Gravelle)Economic Issues Surrounding the Estate and Gift Tax: A Brief Summary (RS20609, Gravelle)Estate Taxes and Family Businesses: Economic Issues (RL33070, Gravelle & Maguire)Estate and Gift Taxes: Economic Issues (RL30600, Gravelle & Maguire)H.
R. 8: The Death Tax Elimination Act of 2001 (RL30912, Noto) Farm Bills/Economic Stimulus Overview of Bioenergy Programs in the 2014 Farm Bill, (IF10288, McMinimy) NEWThe 2014 Farm Bill (Agricultural Act of 2014), (IF10187, Johnson & Monke) NEWFarm Bill: CRS Experts (R42598, Chite)Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers and the TAA Reauthorization Act of 2015 (R44153, Collins)Trade Adjustment Assistance for Workers: Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress, In Brief (R44009, Collins)2014 Farm Bill Provisions and WTO Compliance (R43817, Schnepf)The Farm Safety Net: In Brief (R43758, Shields)Specialty Crop Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.
L. 113-79) (R43632, Johnson)Dairy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79) (R43465, Schnepf)In Focus: The 2014 Farm Bill (Agricultural Act of 2014, P.L. 113-79) (IF00014, Monke)Farm Commodity Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79) (R43448, Shields)The 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79): Summary and Side-by-Side (R43076, Chite et al.)Expiration and Extension of the 2008 Farm Bill (R42442, Monke, et al.
)The Next Farm Bill: Changing the Treatment of LIHEAP Receipt in the Calculation of SNAP Benefits (R42591, Aussenberg & Perl)The 2013 Farm Bill: A Comparison of the Senate-Passed (S. 954) and House-Passed (H.R. 2642, H.R. 3102) Bills with Current Law (R43076, Chite et al.)Farm Safety Net Provisions in a 2013 Farm Bill: S. 954 and H.R. 2642 (R42759, Shields & Schnepf)Dairy Policy Proposals in the Next Farm Bill (R42736, Schnepf)Budget Issues Shaping a Farm Bill in 2013 (R42484, Monke)Entitlements and Appropriated Entitlements in the Federal Budget Process (RS20129, Heniff)What Is the Farm Bill? (RS22131, Johnson & Monke) UpdatedThe Senate Agriculture Committee’s 2012 Farm Bill (S.
3240): A Side-by-Side Comparison with Current Law (R42552, Chite)Expiring Farm Bill Programs Without a Budget Baseline (R41433, Monke)Previewing the Next Farm Bill(R42357, Chite)Dairy Farm Support: Legislative Proposals in the 112th Congress (R42065, Shields)The Small Business Lending Fund (R42045, Dilger)Farm Safety Net Proposals for the 2012 Farm Bill (R42040, Shields & Schnepf)Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and Its Role in U.
S. Trade Policy (R41922, Hornbeck, et al.)Farm Safety Net Programs: Issues for the Next Farm Bill (R41317, Shields et al.)Previewing the Next Farm Bill: Unfunded and Early-Expiring Provisions (R41433, Monke)Actual Farm Bill Spending and Cost Estimates (R41195, Monke & Johnson)Previewing Dairy Policy Options for the Next Farm Bill (R41141, Shields)2002 Farm Bill: Comparison of Commodity Support Provisions with the House and Senate Proposals (RL31524, Womach)2002 Farm Bill: Overview and Status (RL31195, Womach)2002 Farm Law at a Glance (RS21233, Becker)2008 Farm Bill: Major Provisions and Legislative Actions (RL34696, Johnson, et al.
)2008 Farm Bill: Analysis of Tax-Related Conservation Reserve Program Proposals (RS22910, Pettit)Agricultural Exports and the 2007 Farm Bill (RL34227, Hanrahan)Agricultural Export Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill (RS22905, Hanrahan)Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education: Farm Bill Issues (RL34352, Rawson)Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension in the 2007 Farm Bill (RS22693, Rawson)Agriculture, Nutrition, and Rural Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (R40160, Monke et al.
)Animal Agriculture: 2007 Farm Bill Issues (RL33958, Becker & Johnson)Biofuels in the 2007 Energy and Farm Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison (RL34239, Yacobucci & Schnepf)Comparison of the House and Senate 2007 Farm Bills (RL34228, Johnson, et al.)Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill (RL34060, Zinn)Crop Insurance and Disaster Assistance in the 2008 Farm Bill (RL34207, Chite)Dairy Policy and the 2008 Farm Bill (RL34036, Chite)Domestic Food Assistance: The Farm Bill and Other Legislation in the 110th Congress (RL33829, Richardson)Energy Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (R40412, Sissine, et al.
)Energy Provisions of the Farm Bill: Comparison of the New Law with Previous Law and House and Senate Bills (RL31271, Yacobucci)Environmental Services Markets: Farm Bill Proposals (RL34042, Johnson)Exposure of U.S. Farm Policy to Challenge Under WTO Rules: A Powerpoint Summary (WD06001, Schnepf & Womach)Farm Bill Budget and Costs: 2002 vs. 2007 (RS22694, Chite)Farm Bill Proposals and Legislative Action in the 110th Congress (RL33934, Johnson)Farm Bill Trade and Food Aid Provisions (RS20997, Becker)Farm Commodity Programs in the 2008 Farm Bill (RL34594, Monke)Farm Legislation and Taxes in the 110th Congress (RS22759, Brumbaugh)Forestry in the 2007 Farm Bill (RL33917, Gorte)Food Stamps and Nutrition Programs in the 2002 Farm Bill (RL33690, Richardson)Funding Levels for Conservation Programs in the 2007 Farm Bill (RL34178, Zinn)The House-Passed 2007 Farm Bill (H.
R. 2419) at a Glance (RL34113, Johnson, et al.)International Food Aid and the 2007 Farm Bill (RL34145, Hanrahan)Legal Analysis of the Conservation Easement Tax Credit in the Senate Version of H.R. 2419 (RL34338, Alexander & Lundser)A New Farm Bill: Comparing the 2002 Law with Previous Law and House and Senate Bills (RL31704, Jones)Possible Expiration (or Extension)of the 2002 Farm Bill (RL34154, Monke, et al.
)Previewing a 2007 Farm Bill (RL33037, Womach)Renewable Energy Policy in the 2008 Farm Bill (RL34130, Schnepf)Rural Development and the 2007 Farm Bill (RL34126, Cowan)Specialty Crops: 2008 Farm Bill Issues (RL33520, Rawson)Sugar Policy and the 2007 Farm Bill (RL34103, Jurenas)What Is a Farm Bill? (RL30956, Jones) Farm Labor Aliens Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 114th Congress (R44230, Bruno et al.
) NEWAgricultural Guest Workers: Legislative Activity in the 113th Congress (R43161, Bruno)Brief History of Comprehensive Immigration Reform Efforts in the 109th and 110th Congresses to Inform Policy Discussions in the 113th Congress (R42980, Wassem)Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues (RS20844, Wasem & Ester)Authority of State and Local Police to Enforce Federal Immigration Law (R41423, Garcia & Manuel)Immigration Visa Issuances and Grounds for Exclusion: Policy and Trends (R41104, Wasem)Immigration Reform Issues in the 111th Congress (R40501, Wasem)Unauthorized Aliens in the United States (R41207, Bruno)Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2006: Potential Labor Market Effects of the Guest Worker Program (RL33772, Mayer)The Effects of U.
S. Farm Workers on an Agricultural Guest Worker Program (95-712, Levine)Farm Labor Shortages and Immigration Policy (RL30395, Levine)Immigration of Foreign Workers: Labor Market Tests and Protections (RL33977, Wasem)Immigration: Policy Considerations Related to Guest Worker Programs (RL32044, Bruno)Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 109th Congress (RL33125, Bruno, et al.)Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 110th Congress (RL34204, Bruno, et al.
)Temporary Farm Labor: The H-2A Program and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Proposed Changes in the Adverse Effect Wage Rate (AEWR) (RL34739, MayerUnauthorized Employment in the United States: Issues and Options (RL33973, Bruno)U.S. Immigration Policy on Temporary Admissions (RL31381, Wasem & Haddal) General & Social Welfare Farm Labor: The Adverse Effect Wage Rate (RL32861, Whittaker)Labor Practices in the Meat Packing and Poultry Processing Industry: An Overview (RL33002, Whittaker)Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers: Protective Statutes (RL33372, Whittaker)Trade Promotion Authority Renewal: Core Labor Standards Issues: A Brief Overview (RS22608, Bolle)Trade Promotion Authority (TPA)/Fast-Track Renewal: Labor Issues (RL33864, Bolle) Return to the CRS Reports index.
Farm Commodity Programs EU Agricultural Support: Overview and Comparison with the United States, ( R44524, Schnepf) UpdatedWhen Congressional Legislation Interferes with Existing Contracts: Legal Issues (R42635, Meltz)Risk Management Tools for Dairy Farmers (R41854, Shields)Implications of Reactivating the Dairy Export Incentive Program (R40584, Shields & Hanrahan)Biomass Crop Assistance Program: Status and Issues (R41296, Stubbs)Sugar Policy Issues (R40995, Jurenas)Dairy Pricing Issues (R40903, Shields)Average Farm Subsidy Payments by State, 2002 (RL32590, Womach)Comparing Quota Buyout Payments for Peanuts and Tobacco (RS21642, Womach)Cotton Production and Support in the U.
S. (RL32442, Womach)Dairy Policy Issues (RL33475, Chite)Eliminating the Planting Restrictions on Fruits and Vegetables in the Farm Commodity Programs (RL34019, Johnson & Monke)Farm Commodity Legislation: Chronology 1933-2002 (96-900, Becker)Farm Commodity Policy: Programs and Issues for Congress (RS21999, Monke)Farm Commodity Proposals in the President’s FY2010 Budget (R40442, Monke)Farm “Counter-Cyclical Assistance” (RS20913, Becker & Womach)Farm and Food Support Under USDA’s Section 32 Program (RL34081, Shields) UpdatedFarm Commodity Policy: Base Acreage and Planting Flexibility (RS21615, Monke)Farm Commodity Programs: A Short Primer (RS20848, Becker)Farm Commodity Programs: Direct Payments, Counter-Cyclical Payments, and Marketing Loans (RL33271, Monke)Farm Commodity Programs: Honey (RS20759, Canada)Fruits, Vegetables, and Other Specialty Crops: A Primer on Government Programs (RL32746, Rawson)High Agricultural Commodity Prices: What Are the Issues (RL34474, Schnepf)Livestock Price Reporting: Background (RS21994, Becker)Measuring Equity in Farm Support Levels (RL34053, Womach & Schnepf)A New Farm Program Option: Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) (R40422, Shields)Payment Limits for Farm Commodity Programs: Issues and Proposals (RS21493, Monke)Peanut Program: Evolution from Supply Management to Market Orientation (RL30924, Jurenas)Price Determination in Agricultural Commodity Markets: A Primer (RL33204, Schnepf)Sugar Policy Issues (RL33541, Jurenas)Tobacco Farmer Assistance (RS20802, Womach)Tobacco Price Support: An Overview of the Program (95-129, Womach)Tobacco Quota Buyout (RS22046, Womach)Tobacco-Related Programs and Activities of the USDA: Operation and Cost (97-417, Womach)Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers (R40206, Jurenas) UpdatedWool and Mohair Price Supports (RS20896, Canada) Farm Policy and Legislative Analysis 109th Congress Agricultural Issues in the 109th Congress (RS22013, Chite)Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues for the 109th Congress (RL32733, Sullivan et al.
) 110th Congress Agricultural Issues in the 110th Congress (RS22552, Chite)Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues for the 110th Congress (RL33828, Sullivan, et al.) Return to the CRS Reports index. Federal Loan Programs Garcia v. Vilsack: A Policy and Legal Analysis of a USDA Discrimination Case (R40988, Feder & Cowan)The Pigford Case: USDA Settlement of a Discrimination Suit by Black Farmers (RS20430, Feder & Cowan) Finance and Credit The Commodity Credit Corporation: In Brief, (R44606, Stubbs)SBA Office of Advocacy: Overview, History, and Current Issues (R43625, Dilger) NEWSBA New Markets Venture Capital Program (R42565, Dilger) NEWSmall Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues (R40860, Dilger) NEW“Regulatory Relief” for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress (R44035, Hoskins et al.
)Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs (R41352, Dilger)Small Business Administration 504/CDC Loan Guaranty Program (R41184, Dilger)The SBA Disaster Loan Program: Overview and Possible Issues for Congress (R41309, Lindsay)Small Business Administration HUBZone Program (R41268, Dilger)Small Business Administration Microloan Program (R41057, Dilger)Independence of Federal Financial Regulators (R43391, Hogue et al.
)Small Business: Access to Capital and Job Creation (R40985, Dilger) UpdatedState Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues (R42581, Dilger)Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs (RL33243, Dilger & Lowry) UpdatedSmall Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program (R41146, Dilger) UpdatedAgricultural Credit: Farm Bill Issues (RS21977, Monke) UpdatedConservation Reserve Payments and Self-Employment Taxes (RS20564, Morris)Farm Credit Services of America Ends Attempt to Leave the Farm Credit System (RS21919, Monke)Farm Credit System (RS21278, Monke) UpdatedFarm Service Agency: State Executive Directors, and State and County/Local Area Committees (R40179, Canada) Food Safety China’s Efforts to Address Ongoing Food Safety Concerns (IF10465, Johnson) NEWEfforts to Address the Safety of FDA-Regulated Food Imports, (IF10403, Johnson) NEWFood Safety Issues: FDA Judicial Enforcement Actions (R43927, Lanza)Legal Issues with Federal Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food: In Brief (R43705, Lanza) UpdatedImplementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA, P.
L. 111-353) (R43724, Johnson) UpdatedFood Recalls and Other FDA Administrative Enforcement Actions (R43794, Lanza)Revision of the Nutrition Facts Label: Proposed Rules (R43733, Dabrowska)Food Fraud and “Economically Motivated Adulteration” of Food and Food Ingredients (R43358, Johnson)Food Safety Issues for the 113th Congress (R42885, Johnson)Lean Finely Textured Beef: The “Pink Slime” Controversy (R42473, Greene)Food Safety Issues for the 112th Congress (R41629, Johnson)Food Safety: Foodborne Illness and Selected Recalls of FDA-Regulated Foods (R40916, Lister & Becker)BSE (“Mad Cow Disease”): A Brief Overview (RS22345, Becker)Dietary Supplements: Legislative and Regulatory Status (RL30887, Porter)FDA Authority to Oversee Private Laboratories that Analyze Imported FDA-Regulated Food (R40109, Burrows)FDA Fast Track and Priority Review Programs (RS22814, Thaul)FDA’s Authority to Recall Products (RL34167, Burrows)FDA Authority to Regulate On-Farm Activity (RS22939, Burrows)Federal Food Safety System: A Primer (RS22600, Becker & Porter) UpdatedFederal Regulation of Substances Generally Recognied As Safe (GRAS) and the Use of Carbon Monoxide in Packaging for Meat and Fish (RL34247, Burrows & Brougher)Food Labeling: Allergy Information (RS20975, Porter)Food Safety on the Farm: Federal Programs and Selected Proposals (RL34612, Becker)Food Safety and Protection Issues in the 107th Congress (IB10099, Vogt & Rawson)Food Safety Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill (RS22886, Becker)Food Safety: Provisions in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (RS22779, Porter)Food Safety: Federal and State Response to the Spinach E.
coli Outbreak (RL33722, Porter & Lister)Food Safety: National Uniformity for Food Act(RL33559, Porter)Food Safety: Oversight and Current Issues (RS22734, Becker)Food Safety Issues in the 109th Congress (RL31853, Vogt)Food Safety: Selected Issues and Bills in the 110th Congress (RL34152, Becker)Food Safety: Selected Issues and Bills in the 111th Congress: H.R. 2749 and S. 510 (R40443, Johnson et al.
)Health and Safety Concerns Over U.S. Imports of Chinese Products: An Overview (RS22713, Morrison)Impact of Food Insecurity and Hunger on Global Health: Issues for Congress (R40127, Salaam-Blyther & Hanrahan)Meat and Poultry Inspection: Background and Selected Issues (RL32922, Becker)Nutrition Labeling: Fresh Meats (RS20652, Porter)Pesticide Residue Regulation: Analysis of Food Quality Protection Act Implementation (RS20043, Schierow)Regulation of Plant-Based Pharmaceuticals(RS21418, Becker & Vogt)Seafood Safety: Background and Issues (RS22797, Becker & Upton)State-Inspected Meat and Poultry: Issues for Congress (RL34202, Becker)USDA Meat Inspection and the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act (RS22819, Becker)USDA’s Authority to Recall Meat and Poultry Products (RL34313, Brougher & Becker)U.
S. Food and Agricultural Imports: Safeguards and Selected Issues (RL34198, Becker) Food Security/Aid Food Security The Role of Local and Regional Food Systems in U.S. Farm Policy,(R44390 , Johnson) NEWGlobal Food Security Act of 2016 (P.L. 114-195), (IF10475, Hammons) NEWUniform Date Labeling of Food May Address Food Waste, (IF10398, Johnson) NEWPolicy Issues Involving Food Loss and Waste, (IF10317, Johnson) NEWChildhood Overweight and Obesity: Data Brief (R41420, Dabrowska)Poverty in the United States: 2013 (RL33069, Gabe)Consumers and Food Price Inflation (R40545, Schnepf & Richardson) UpdatedFood Price Inflation: Causes and Impacts (RS22859, Capehart & Richardson) Domestic Aid Programs Updated Standards for SNAP-Authorized Retailers: Final Rule, (R44650, Aussenberg)Improving Child Nutrition Integrity and Access Act of 2016: In Brief (R44373, Aussenberg) NEWDietary Guidelines for Americans: Frequently Asked Questions (R44360, Dabrowska) NEWA Primer on WIC: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (R44115, Aussenberg) NEWPoverty in the United States in 2014: In Brief (R44211, Dalaker)School Meals Programs and Other USDA Child Nutrition Programs: A Primer (R43783, Aussenberg) UpdatedReauthorization of SNAP and Other Nutrition Programs in the Next Farm Bill: Issues for the 113th Congress (R43332, Aussenberg)Background on the Scheduled Reduction to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Benefits (R43257, Aussenberg & Falk)Drug Testing and Crime-Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance (R42394, McCarty et al.
)Domestic Food Assistance in 2012 Farm Bill Proposals: S. 3240 and H.R. 6083 (R42829, Aussenberg)Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): A Primer on Eligibility and Benefits (R42505, Aussenberg) UpdatedThe Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Categorical Eligibility (R42054, Falk & Aussenberg) UpdatedDomestic Food Assistance: Summary of Programs (R42353, Aussenberg & Colello) UpdatedThe Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions (RL32760, Falk)The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Block Grant: Issues for the 112th Congress (R41781, Falk)Unemployment Insurance: Legislative Issues in the 112th Congress (R41662, Isaacs & Whittaker)Upcoming Unemployment Insurance Benefit Expirations (R41508, Isaacs)Reducing SNAP (Food Stamp) Benefits Provided by the ARRA: P.
L. 111-226 & S. 3307 (R41374, Richardson et al.)Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization: Issues and Legislation in the 111th Congress (R41354, Richardson)Federal Response to Calls for Increased Aid from USDA’s Food Assistance Programs (R41076, Richardson)Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: A Brief Overview (R40397, Richardson)Charitable Contribution of Food Inventory: Proposals for Change (RL31097, Talley & Jackson)Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Recent Funding (RL33307, Richardson)Child Nutrition and WIC Legislation in the 108th and 109th Congresses (RL33299, Richardson)Child Nutrition and WIC Programs: Background and Recent Funding (RL33307, Richardson)Domestic Food Assistance: Legislative Issues in the 110th Congress (RL33829, Richardson)Emergency Food and Shelter Program (RS22286, Perl)Farm and Food Support Under USDA’s Section 32 Program (RS20235, Becker)Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (RS21202, O’Shaughnessy)State Policies on Immigrant Eligibility for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) (RL32363, Wasem)TANF: A Guide to the New Definitions of What Counts as Work Participation (RS22490, Falk)TANF Cash Benefits as of January 1, 2004 (RL32598, Walters et al.
)TANF Reauthorization: Side-by-Side Comparison of Current Law and Two Versions of H.R. 4 (108th Congress) (RL32210, Burke & Falk)TANF Reauthorization: Side-by-Side Comparison of Current Law, S. 667, and H.R. 240 (TANF Provisions) (RL32834, Falk)Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: A Primer on TANF Financing and Federal Requirements (RL32748, Falk)Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: FY2007 Budget Proposals (RS22385, Falk) International Aid Programs U.
S. International Food Aid Programs, (IF10194, Schnepf) NEWForeign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy (R40213, Tarnoff & Lawson) NEWThe Obama Administration’s Feed the Future Initiative (R44216, Schnef) UpdatedInternational Food Aid: U.S. and Other Donor Contributions (RS21279, Hanrahan & Canada)Foreign Operations Appropriations: General Provisions (R40557, Rennack, et al.
)Instability and Humanitarian Conditions in Chad (RS22798, Ploch)Foreign Assistance Act of 1961: Authorizations and Corresponding Appropriations (R40089, Rennack)Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-FY2009 (RS20792, Sanford)International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues (R41072,Schnepf) UpdatedU.S. Global Food Security Initiative: Issues for Congress (R40945, Hanrahan & Ho)Agricultural Export and Food Aid Programs (RL33553, Hanrahan)Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust: Background and Current Issues (RS21234, Hanrahan)Foreign Aid Reform: Issues for Congress and Policy Options (RL34243, Veiliette)Haiti: Legislative Responses to the Food Crisis and Related Development Challenges(RS22879, Seelke & Hornbeck)Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Food Aid Needs and the U.
S. Response (RS22027, Hanrahan)International Disasters and Humanitarian Assistance: U.S. Governmental Response (RL32714, Margesson)International Food Aid Provisions of the 2008 Farm Bill (RS22900, Hanrahan)Iraq: Oil-For-Food Program, Illicit Trade, and Investigations (RL30472, Katzman & Blanchard)Local and Regional Procurement for U.S. International Food Emergency Food Aid (R40759, Hanrahan)Restructuring U.
S. Foreign Aid: Role of the Director of Foreign Assistance (RL33491, Nowels & Veillette)Rising Food Prices and Global Food Needs: U.S. Response (RL34478, Hanrahan)U.S. Assistance to North Korea: Fact Sheet (RS21834, Manyin)U.S. Foreign Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean (RL32487, Veillete) Return to the CRS Reports index. Forestry National Forest System Management: Overview, Appropriations, and Issues for Congress (R43872, Hoover) NEWWildfire Spending: Background, Issues, and Legislation in the 114th Congress (R44082, Hoover et al.
)Forestry Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79) (R43431, Hoover)Wildfire Protection in the Wildland-Urban Interface (RS21880, Bracmort)Wildfire Management: Federal Funding and Related Statistics (R43077, Bracmort)Forest Service Payments to Counties’ Title I of the Federal Forests County Revenue, Schools, and Jobs Act of 2012: Issues for Congress (R42452, Corn & Alexander)Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery (R41858, Gorte)orestry in the Next Farm Bill (R41213, Gorte)International Forestry Issues in Climate Change Bills: Comparison of Provisions of S.
1733 and H.R. 2454 (R40990, Sheikh & Gorte)Bali Agreements and Forests (RS22806, Gorte & Sheikh)California Wildfires and Federal Assistance (RS22744, Gorte)Carbon Sequestration in Forests (RL31432, Gorte)Federal Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service (RL33596, Gorte, et al.)Federal Lands Provisions of Economic Stimulus Legislation (R40217, Vincent)Forest Ecosystem Health: An Overview (RS20822, Gorte)Forest Fire/Wildfire Protection (RL30755, Gorte)Forest Health: Overview (95-548, Gorte)Forest Roads: Construction and Financing (98-706, Gorte)Forest Service Receipt-Sharing Payments: Proposals for Change (RS20178, Gorte)Forestry in the Farm Bill (RS22329, Gorte)Illegal Logging: Background and Issues (RL33932, Sheikh)National Forest System Roadless Areas Initiative (RL30647, Baldwin)Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000: Forest Service Payments to Counties (RL33822, Gorte)Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses (RL34517, Gorte)Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction (R40811, Gorte)Wildfire Funding (RL33990, Gorte)Wildfire Protection Funding (RS21544, Gorte)Wildfire Protection in the 108th Congress (RS22024, Gorte) International Agriculture Production IssuesInternational Law and Agreements: Their Effect upon U.
S. Law (RL32528, Garcia)Small Business Administration Trade and Export Promotion Programs (R43155, Lowrey)Brazil: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations (RL33456, Meyer)Chemical Regulation in the European Union (EU): Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (RS22673, Yen)Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): In Brief (R43158, Akhtar & Jones).
Agriculture in Afghanistan and Neighboring Asian Countries (RL31190, Jurenas)Brazil’s Agricultural Production and Exports: Selected Data (RL33699, Hanrahan)Caribbean Region: Issues in U.S. Relations (RL32160, Sullivan)Comparing U.S. and EU Program Support for Farm Commodities and Conservation (R40539, Johnson et al.)International Wine Market: Description and Selected Issues (RL32028, Schnepf)Iraq Agriculture and Food Supply: Background and Issues (RL32093, Schnepf)Iraq’s Agriculture: Background and Status (RS21516, Schnepf)Trends in U.
S. Agricultural Export Credit Guarantee Programs and P.L. 480, Title I, FY 1992-2002 (RL32278, Canada) Trade Issues U.S. Stakeholders Critical of U.S.-Mexico Sugar Agreements, (IF10517, McMinimy) NEWU.S. Catfish Industry and Foreign Trade: A Fact Sheet (R44177, Upton) NEWU.S. Trade in Services: Trends and Policy Issues (R43291, Fefer) UpdatedSoftwood Lumber Imports From Canada: Current Issues (R42789, Hoover & Fergusson)U.
S. Agricultural Trade with Cuba: Current Limitations and Future Prospects (R44119, McMinimy) NEWThe World Trade Organization Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and Recent Food Labeling Cases (R44210, Shedd)International Trade: Rules of Origin (RL34524, Jones)Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress (R43926, Sullivan) UpdatedMajor Agricultural Trade Issues in the 114th Congress (R43905, McMinimy et al.
)Cuba Sanctions: Legislative Restrictions Limiting the Normalization of Relations (R43888, Rennack & Sullivan)Agricultural Exports and 2014 Farm Bill Programs: Background and Issues (R43696, McMinimy) UpdatedThe U.S. Wine Industry and Selected Trade Issues with the European Union (R43658, Johnson) UpdatedTrade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions (R43491, Cooper et al.) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Related Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade (R43450, Johnson)Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations (R43387, Akhtar & Jones) UpdatedTrade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress (R42555, Akhtar)Trade Preferences: Economic Issues and Policy Options (R41429, Jones et al.
)Miscellaneous Tariff Bills: Overview and Issues for Congress (RL33867, Jones) UpdatedU.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Background and Issues for Congress (R42686, Bolle & Williams)The Jackson-Vanik Amendment and Candidate Countries for WTO Accession: Issues for Congress (RS22398, Cooper)Russia’s Accession to the WTO and Its Implications for the United States (R42085, Cooper)Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues (R42472, Ilias)U.
S. Trade Remedy Laws and Nonmarket Economies: A Legal Overview (RL33976, Grimmett)Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods and the WTO Trade Dispute on Meat Labeling (RS22955, Jurenas & Greene)Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances (RL31139, Sullivan)Cuba: Issues for the 112th Congress (R41617, Sullivan)International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 112th Congress (R41553, Ahearn)Trade Primer: Qs and As on Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy (RL33944, Ahearn)NADTA and the Mexican Economy (RL34733, Villarreal)Bangladesh: Political and Strategic Developments and U.
S. Interests (R41194, Vaughn)Agricultural Export Programs: Background and Issues (R41202, Ho & Hanrahan)CRS Issue Statement on Agricultural Trade and Development (IS40253, Hanrahan)U.S.-Latin America Trade: Recent Trends and Policy Issues (98-840, Hornbeck)Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress (R40193, Sullivan)U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreements (RL33951, Hornbeck)U.
S.-Mexico Economic Relations: Trends, Issues, and Implications (RL32934, Villarreal)U.S. Trade and Investment Relationship with Sub-Saharan Africa: The African Growth and Opportunity Act (RL31772, Jones)2009 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings and U.S. Trade Policy in Asia (R41071, Martin)Potential Trade Implications of Restrictions on Antimicrobial Use in Animal Production (R41047, Johnson)Agriculture: U.
S.-China Trade Issues (RS21292, Becker & Hanrahan)Avian Flu Pandemic: Potential Impact of Trade Disruptions (RS22453, Langton)Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (“Mad Cow Disease”) and Canadian Beef Imports (RL32627, Becker & Copeland)Child Labor in West African Cocoa Production: Issues and U.S. Policy (RL32990, Salaam-Blyther, et al.)China’s Trade with the United States and the World (RL31403, Lum & Nanto)China-U.
S. Trade Issues (RL33536, Morrison)Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods (RS22955, Becker)Country-of-Origin Labeling for Foods (97-508, Becker)Europe’s New Trade Agenda (RS22547, Ahearn)Food and Agricultural Imports from China (RL34080, Becker)Environment and the World Trade Organization at Seattle: Issues and Concerns (RS20417, Fletcher)Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation (RL33499, Jurenas)Foreign Countries’ Response to the Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus: Current Status (RL33871, Chanlett-Avery)Generalized System of Preferences Renewal: Agricultural Imports (RS22541, Johnson)Generalized System of Preferences (97-389, Cooper)Genetically Engineered Soybeans: Acceptance and Intellectual Property Rights Issues in South America (RS21558, Schnepf)International Efforts to Control the Spread of the Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus: Affected Countries’ Responses (RL33349, Chanlett-Avery, et al.
)Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress (RL33436, Chanlett-Avery) Japan-U.S. Beef Trade Issues (RS22115, Becker)Mad Cow Disease and U.S. Beef Trade (RS21709, Hanrahan & Becker)Panama: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations (RL30981, Sullivan & Olhero)Proposed Import Restrictions on Milk Protein Concentrates (R40839, Shields & Hanrahan)Russia’s Accession to the WTO (RL31979, Cooper)Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Concerns in Agricultural Trade (RL33472, Becker)Textile and Apparel Trade Issues (RL31723, Gelb)Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers (RS21182, Becker)Trade Adjustment Assistance for Firms: Economic, Program, and Policy Issues (RS20210, Hornbeck)Trade Capacity Building: Foreign Assistance for Trade and Development (RL33628, Langton)Trade Promotion Authority: Issues, Options, and Prospects for Renewal (RL33743, Hornbeck & Cooper)United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges (RL33087, Fergusson)U.
S. Agricultural Biotechnology in Global Markets: An Introduction (RL31970, Becker & Hanrahan)U.S.-EU Poultry Dispute (R40199, Becker)UpdatedU.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts (RL33577, Nanto, et al.)U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options (RL32649, Cooper)U.S.-Latin America Trade: Recent Trends (98-840, Hornbeck)U.S.-Russia Meat and Poultry Trade Issues (RS22948, Becker)U.
S.-South Korea Beef Disputes: Negotiations and Status (RL34528, Jurenas)U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products (RL34468, Johnson) UpdatedU.S. Trade with Developing Countries: Trends, Prospects, and Policy Implications (RL33945, Cooper)U.S. Trade Statutes: Expiration Dates and Mandated Periodic Reports to Congress (RL34196, Bolle, et al.)Vietnam PNTR Status and WTO Accession: Issues and Implications for the U.
S. (RL33490, Manyin & Cooper)WTO Doha Round: Implications for U.S. Agriculture (RS22927, Schnepf & Hanrahan) Agreements TPP: U.S.-Japan Issues, (IF10456, Williams et al.) NEWTPP: Taking the Measure of the Agreement for U.S. Agriculture, (IF10412, McMinimy) NEWAgriculture Issues in U.S.-EU Trade Negotiations, (IF10240, Johnson) NEWGeographical Indications (GIs) in U.S. Agricultural Trade, (IF10188, Johnson) NEWAgriculture and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) Negotiations, (R44564, Johnson) NEWGeographical Indications in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) Negotiations, (R44556, Johnson) NEWThe Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Key Provisions and Issues for Congress, (R44489, Fergusson & Williams) NEWThe Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): Strategic Implications (R44361, Williams et al.
) NEWAmerican Agriculture and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement (R44337, McMinimy) NEWThe Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP): In Brief (R44278, Fergusson, McMinimy & Williams) NEWIn Focus: The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and U.S. Agriculture (IF10233)U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners (R44044, Jackson)Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement (R43592, Schnepf)NAFTA at 20: Overview and Trade Effects (R42965, Villarreal & Fergusson)Cuba: U.
S. Policy and Issues for the 113th Congress (R43024, Sullivan)The Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations and Issues for Congress (R42694, Fergusson et al.)Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Countries: Comparative Trade and Economic Analysis (R42344, Williams)The Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTADR): Developments in Trade and Investment (R42468, Hornbeck)EU-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Its Implications for the United States (R41534, Cooper et al.
)World Trade Organization: Issues in the Debate on Continued U.S. Participation (R41291, Ahearn & Fergusson)Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws (R41306, Barbour)International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (R41091, Ho)Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (R40502, Fergusson & Vaughn)Agricultural Export Subsidies, Export Credits and the WTO (RS20858, Canada & Hanrahan)Agricultural Support Mechanisms in the EU: A Comparison with the U.
S. (RL30753, Becker)Agricultural Trade in the Free Trade Area of the Americas (RL30935, Jurenas)Agriculture and Fast Track or Trade Promotion Authority (97-817, Becker & Hanrahan)Agriculture in U.S. Free Trade Agreements: Trade with Current and Prospective Partners, Impacts, and Issues (RL34134, Jurenas)Agriculture in the US-Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (RL32110, Jurenas)Agriculture in the WHO Doha Round: Framework Agreement and Next Steps (RS21905, Hanrahan)Agriculture in the WTO: Limits on Domestic Support (RS20840, Schnepf)Agriculture in the WTO: Member Spending on Domestic Support (RL30612, Schnepf)Agriculture in the WTO: Policy Commitments Made Under the Agreement on Agriculture (RL32916, Schnepf)Agriculture in WTO Negotiations (RL32053, Hanrahan)Andean-U.
S. Free Trade Agreement Negotiations (RL32770, Villarreal)Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States (RL33258, Hornbeck)Central American and the Dominican Republic in Context of the Free Trade Agreement with U.S. (RL32322, Storrs et al.)Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Background and Issues (RL32751, Sheikh & Corn)Dietary Supplements: International Standards and Trade Agreements (98-500, Porter)Dispute Settlement in the World Trade Organization: An Overview (RS20088, Grimmett)Doha Development Agenda: WTO Framework Agreement (RL32645, Fergusson, et al.
)Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) (RL31870, Hornbeck)EU-U.S. Economic Ties: Framework, Scope, and Magnitude (RL30608, Cooper)European Union-U.S. Trade and Investment Relations: Key Issues (RL34381, Ahearn, et al.)Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy (RL31356, Cooper)Free Trade Area of the Americas: Major Policy Issues and Status of Negotiations (RS20864, Hornbeck)Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate (RL33663, Jones)Geographical Indications and WTO Negotiations (RS21569, Hanrahan)Green Payments in U.
S. and European Union Ag Policy (RL32624, Johnson & Hanrahan)Immigration Issues in Trade Agreements (RL32982, Wasem & Haddal)Implementing International Agreements on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (RL33336, Schierow)India-U.S. Economic and Trade Relations (RL34161, Martin, et al.)Japan’s Free Trade Agreement Program (RL33044, Ahearn)Mercosur: Evolution and Implications for U.
S. Trade Policy (RL33620, Hornbeck)Permanent Normal Trade Relations Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties (RS21123, Cooper)Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): Fact Sheet on Three International Agreements (RS22379, Schierow)Peru Trade Promotion Agreement: Labor Issues (RS22521, Villarreal & Bolle)Potential Challenges to U.S. Farm Subsidies in the WTO: A Brief Overview (RS22522, Schnepf & Womach)Potential Challenges to U.
S. Farm Subsidies in the WTO (RL33697, Schnepf & Womach)Proposed South Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (RL33435, Cooper & Manyin)Proposed U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (RS22419, Villarreal)Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement (RL33445, Nanto)Proposed U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (RL33328, Bolle)Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement (RL32540, Hornbeck)Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement: Provisions and Implications (RL34330, Cooper, et al.
)Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy (RL31932, Jackson)Trade Negotiations During the 110th Congress (RL33463, Fergusson)Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the WTO (RS22183, Grimmett)Trade Promotion Authority and Fast-Track Negotiating Authority for Trade Agreements: Major Votes (RS21004, Smith)U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement: Provisions and Implications (RL32375, Cooper)U.S.
Agricultural Trade: Trends, Composition, Direction, and Policy (98-253, Hanrahan, et al.)U.S.-Southern African Customs Union Free Trade Agreement: Background and Potential Issues (RS21387, Langton)U.S.-Peru Economic Relations and the U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (RL34108, Villarreal)U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (RS22391, Villarreal)U.S.-Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations (RL32314, Ahearn & Morrison)U.
S.-Vietnam Relations: Background and Issues for Congress (RL33316, Manyin)U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreements (RL33951, Hornbeck)Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties (97-896, Grimmett)World Trade Organization: Background and Issues (98-928, Fergusson)WTO Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda (RL32060, Fergusson)The World Trade Organization: The Hong Kong Ministerial (RL33176, Fergusson)World Trade Organization (WTO): Issues in the Debate on U.
S. Participation (RL32918, Fergusson & Sek)WTO Doha Round: Agricultural Negotiating Proposals (RL33144, Hanrahan & Schnepf)WTO Decisions and Their Effect in U.S. Law (RS22154, Grimmett)WTO Compliance Status of the Conservation Security Program and the Conservation Reserve Program (RL34010, Schnepf) DisputesStatus of the WTO Brazil-U.S. Cotton Case (R43336, Schnepf)Trade Remedies and the WTO Rules Negotiations (R40606, Jones)African Cotton Initiative and WTO Agriculture Negotiations (RS21712, Hanrahan)Agricultural Biotechnology: The U.
S.-EU Dispute (RS21556, Johnson & Hanrahan)Brazil’s WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program (RL32571, Schnepf)Brazil’s and Canada’s WTO Cases Against U.S. Agricultural Support (RL34351, Schnepf)Brazil’s WTO Case Against U.S. Agricultural Support: A Brief Overview (RS22728, Schnepf)Brazil’s WTO Case Against the U.S. Cotton Program: A Brief Overview (RS22187, Schnepf)Canadian Hog Trade Dispute (RS21985, Becker)Canada’s WTO Case Against U.
S. Agricultural Support: A Brief Overview (RS22724, Schnepf)Canada’s WTO Case Against U.S. Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) (RL33853, Schnepf)China-U.S. Poultry Dispute (R40706, Becker)Dispute Settlement Under the Proposed U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (RS22752, Grimmett)European Union’s Ban on Hormore-Treated Meat (RS20142, Hanrahan)Trade Conflict and the U.S.-European Union Econom Relationship (RL30732, Ahearn)Trade Remedies: A Primer (RL32371, Jones)Trade Remedies and Agriculture (RL31296, Becker & Hanrahan)Trade Remedies: “New Shipper” Reviews (RS22290, Jones)Trade Remedy Legislation: Applying Countervailing Action to Nonmarket Economy Countries (RL33550, Jones)U.
S.-Canada Wheat Trade Dispute (RL32426, Schnepf)U.S.-Canada WTO Corn Trade Dispute (RL33853, Schnepf)U.S.-EU Banana Dispute (RS20130, Hanrahan)The U.S.- EU Beef Hormone Dispute (R40449, Johnson & Hanrahan)WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases (RL32014, Grimmett) Return to the CRS Reports index. SanctionsCuba: Issues for the 110th Congress (RL33819, Sullivan)Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress (RL32730, Sullivan)Economic Sanctions and U.
S. Agricultural Exports (RL30108, Jurenas)WTO: Antidumping Issues in the Doha Development Agenda (RL32810, Jones) Return to the CRS Reports index. Public Lands State Management of Federal Lands: Frequently Asked Questions (R42789, Vincent & Wyatt)Federal Lands and Natural Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 114th Congress (R43429, Hoover, et al.)Fish and Wildlife Service: Compensation to Local Governments (R42404, Corn)Administrative Appeals in the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service (R40131, Alexander)Federal Land Management Agencies: Background on Land and Resource Management (RL30867, Vincent, et al.
)Federal Land Ownership: Constitutional Authority and the History of Acquisition, Disposal, and Retention (RL34267, Alexander & Gorte)Federal Land Ownership: Current Acquisition and Disposal Authority (RL34273, Gorte & Vincent)Federal Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service: Issues for the 110th Congress (RL33792, Gorte, et al.)Federal Lands Managed by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service: Issues for the 111th Congress (R40237, Gorte, et al.
)Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (RL33730, Vincent)Federal Land Management Agencies: Background on Land and Resources Mgmt (RL32393, Vincent)Forestry Assistance Programs (RL31065, Gorte)Grazing Fees: An Overview and Current Issues (RS21232, Vincent)Grazing Regulations: Changes by the Bureau of Land Management (RL32244, Vincent)Issues Regarding a National Land Parcel Database (R40717, Folger)Land Disposal Policies of the Principal Federal Land Management Agencies (81-156, Huston)National Forest System Roadless Area Initiatives (RL30647, Alexander & Gorte)National Park Management (RL33484, Vincent & Gorte)Proposals to Merge the Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management: Issues and Approaches (RL34772, Gorte)Recreation on Federal Lands (RL33525, Calvert & Johnson) Rural Development Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA’s Rural Utilities Service (RL33816, Kruger) NEWThe Effectiveness of the Community Reinvestment Act (R43661, Getter) NEWThe Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program (R44308, Sargent)SBA Surety Bond Guarantee Program (R42037, Dilger)SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues (R42695, Dilger & Lowry)Rural Development Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.
L. 113-79) (R43718, Cowan)SBA Small Business Investment Company Program (R41456, Dilger) UpdatedCommunity Development Block Grants and Related Programs: A Primer (R43520, Boyd)Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding (RL32341, Kruger)Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues (R42770, Lowry)Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act (R43256, Moore) Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 113th Congress (R43208, Boyd)The National Broadband Plan Goals: Where Do We Stand? (R43016, Kruger)Spectrum Policy in the Age of Broadband: Issues for Congress (R40674, Moore)Reauthorizing the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 (R41303, Hoover)Rural Broadband: The Roles of the Rural Utilities Service and the Universal Service Fund (R42524, Gilroy & Kruger)Background and Issues for Congressional Oversight of ARRA Broadband Awards (R41775, Kruger)Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate (R40616, Gilroy)PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified (RL31392, Corn)Community Development Block Grants: Funding Issues in the 112th Congress and Recent Funding History (R41754, Boyd)Compensating State and Local Governments for the Tax-Exempt Status of Federal Lands: What Is Fair and Consistent? (R42439, Gorte & Corn)Broadband Infrastrructure Programs in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (R40436, Kruger)Community Development Block Grant Funds in Disaster Relief Recovery (RL33330, Boyd)Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension: Issues and Background (RL33327, Rawson)Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs (RL30719, Kruger & Gilroy) UpdatedBroadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues (RL33542, Gilroy & Kruger)California’s San Joaquin Valley: A Region in Transition (RL33184, Cowan) (3.
8 MB)Changing Structure of Ag and Rural America: Emerging Opportunities & Challenges (RL31172, Cowan)Community Services Block Grants (CSBG): Funding and Reauthorization (RL32872, Spar)Empowerment Zone/Enterprise Communities Program: Overview of Rounds I, II and III(RS20381, Mulock)Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs (RL30478, Copeland, et al.) UpdatedMilitary Base Closure: Socioeconomic Impacts (RS22147, Cowan & Webel)Overview of the Administration’s Strengthening America’s Communities Initiative (RL32823, Boyd, et al.
)Overview of USDA Rural Development Programs (RL31837, Cowan) UpdatedRural Education and the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) (RL33804, Apling)Rural Housing: USDA Disaster Relief Provisions (RS22301, Foote)Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information (98-64, Copeland)USDA Rural Housing Programs: An Overview (RL33421, Foote)Value-Added Agricultural Enterprises in Rural Development Strategies (RL31598, Cowan)Water Infrastructure Needs and Investment: Review and Analysis of Key Issues (RL31116, Copeland & Tiemann) Security and Defense Cybersecurity: Critical Infrastructure Authoritative Reports and Resources (R44410, Tehan) NEWCybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic (R42507, Tehan)Implementation of Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS): Issues for Congress (R43346, Shea)Regulation of Fertilizers: Ammonium Nitrate and Anhydrous Ammonia (R43070.
Shea et al.)Agroterrorism: Options in Congress (RL31217, Segarra)Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness (RL32521, Monke)National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress (RL34160, Shea, et al.) Return to the CRS Reports index. Sustainable and Organic Farming U.S. Farm Policy: Local and Regional Food Systems, (IF10232, Johnson) NEWLocal Food Systems: Selected Farm Bill and Other Federal Programs (R43950, Johnson & Cowan) UpdatedThe Role of Local Food Systems in U.
S. Farm Policy (R42155, Johnson, et al.)Harvey v. Veneman and the National Organic Program: A Legal Analysis (RS22318, Vina)Organic Agriculture in the United States: Program and Policy Issues (RL31595, Rawson) Return to the CRS Reports index. Trade Regulation and Antitrust The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) (RL43388, Jackson) NEWBig Data in U.S. Agriculture (R44331, Stubbs) NEWFederal Securities Law: Insider Trading (RS21127.
Seitzinger)The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act: Standards of Conduct of Brokers, Dealers, and Investment Advisers (R41381, Seitzinger)Protection of Trade Secrets: Overview of Current Law and Legislation (R43714, Yeh)Export-Import Bank Reauthorization: Frequently Asked Questions (R43671, Akhtar et al.) UpdatedExport-Import Bank: Overview and Reauthorization Issues (R43581, Akhtar)The MF Global Bankruptcy, Missing Customer Funds, and Proposals for Reform (R42091, Miller)The Commodity Futures Trading Commission: Background and Current Issues (R43117, Miller)Consolidation and Concentration in the U.
S. Dairy Industry (R41224, Shields)General Overview of U.S. Antitrust Law (RL31026, Rubin)Merger and Antitrust Issues in Ag: Statutes and Agencies (RS20562, Heykoop)Monopoly and Monopolization — Fundamental But Separate Concepts in U.S. Antitrust Law (RS20241, Rubin) Return to the CRS Reports index. Transportation Federal Freight Policy: In Brief (R44367, Frittelli) NEWUnmanned Aircraft Operations in Domestic Airspace: U.
S. Policy Perspectives and the Regulatory Landscape (R44352, Elias) NEWFederal-Aid Highway Program (FAHP): In Brief (R44332, Kirk) NEWCargo Preferences for U.S.-Flag Shipping (R44254, Frittelli)Effects of Buy America on Transportation Infrastructure and U.S. Manufacturing: Policy Options (R44246, Platzer & Mallett)Transportation Security: Issues for the 114th Congress (RL33512, Elias et al.
)U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Background and Issues for Congress (R43390, Frittelli et al.)Surface Transportation Program Reauthorization Issues for Congress (R43420, Kirk et al.)Emergency Relief for Disaster Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief (R43384, Kirk) Highway Bridge Conditions: Issues for Congress (R43103, Kirk & Mallett)Funding and Financing Highways and Public Transportation (R42877, Kirk & Mallett)Inland Waterways: Recent Proposals and Issues for Congress (R41430, Stern)The Federal Excise Tax on Gasoline and the Highway Trust Fund: A Short History (RL30304, Bickley)Rising Gasoline Prices 2012 (R42382, Nerurkar & Pirog)Surface Transportation Reauthorization in the 112th Congress: Summary and Sources (R42350, Levinson)Agriculture As a Source of Barge Demand on the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers (RL32401, Schnepf)Grain Transport: Modal Trends and Infrastructure Implications (RL32720, Frittelli)Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway Navigation Expansion: An Agricultural Transportation and Environmental Context (RL32470, Schnepf)Upper Mississippi River-Illinois Waterway Investments: Legislation in the 109th Congress (RL32915, Carter) Water Resources Central Valley Project (CVP) Operations: In Brief (R44456, Stern et al.
) NEWWestern Water and Drought: Legislative Analysis of H.R. 2898 and S. 1894 (R44316, Sheikh et al.)Irrigation in U.S. Agriculture: On-Farm Technologies and Best Management Practices (R44158, McGee & Stubbs) UpdatedU.S.-Mexico Water Sharing: Background and Recent Developments (R43312, Carter et al.)Indian Water Rights Settlements (R44148, Stern)California Agricultural Production and Irrigated Water Use (R44093, Johnson & Cody)Water Resource Issues in the 114th Congress (R43910, Cody et al.
)Funding for EPA Water Infrastructure: A Fact Sheet (R43871, Copeland)Water Resources Reform and Development Act of 2014: Comparison of Select Provisions (R43298, Carter et al.)H.R. 3964: Analysis of Key Provisions (R43648, Stern et al.)Water Infrastructure Financing: Proposals to Create a Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program (R43315, Copeland) Klamath Basin Settlement Agreements: Issues in Brief (R 42158, Stern et al.
) UpdatedWater Resource Issues in the 113th Congress (R42947, Cody et al.)Selected Federal Water Activities: Agencies, Authorities, and Congressional Committees (R42653, Cody, et al.)Legislative Options for Financing Water Infrastructure (R42467, Copeland, et al.) UpdatedWater Infrastructure Financing: History of EPA Appropriations (96-647, Copeland)Energy and Water Development: FY2012 Appropriations (R41908, Behrens)Flood Damage Related to Army Corps of Engineers Projects: Selected Legal Issues (RL34131, Brougher)Indian Reserved Water Rights Under the Winters Doctrine: An Overview (RL32198, Brougher)Biological Opinions for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: A Case Law Summary (R41876, Alexander)California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues (R40979, Cody, et al.
)Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations (R41243, Carter & Stern) UpdatedDesalination: Status and Federal Issues (R40477, Carter)Army Corps of Engineers Water Resources Activities: Authorization and Appropriations (RL32064, Carter & Hughes)CALFED Bay-Delta Program: Overview of Institutional and Water Use Issues (RL31975, Sheikh & Cody)Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Drought: Species and Ecosystem Management (RL34440, Corn, et al.
)Issues in Klamath River Dam Relicensing (RS22498, Lane)Klamath River Basin Issues and Activities: An Overview (RL33098, Powers et al.)Title XVI Water Reuse Program: Implementation and Legislative Issues (RL33707, Cody & Carter)Water Infrastructure Funding in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (R40216, Copeland & Carter)Water Infrastructure Projects Designated in EPA Appropriations: Trends and Policy Implications (RL32201, Copeland)Water Resources Development Act: Corps of Engineers Authorization Issues (RL33504, Carter, et al.
)Water Resource Issues in the 109th Congress (RS20569, Cody & Hughes)Water Resource Issues in the 111th Congress (R40180, Cody et al.)Western Water Resource Issues (IB10019, Sheikh)Western Water Resource Issues (RL33565, Cody & Sheikh)Wild and Scenic Rivers Act and Federal Water Rights (RL30809, Baldwin)See Also: Granbury Tx Animal Shelter
From a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the new blueness of your Florida sky, ran a small, tawny-haired boy. His bare ft, extending from his overalled legs, crackled versus the fallen palmettos. He leaped into the air, flinging his arms toward a flock of white doves circling higher than him.
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Show All Answers. 1. What services does Animal Control provide in regard to wildlife? We will loan out traps to citizens of unincorporated Arapahoe County for the ...