Test Animals What they endure Purpose Skinsensitization 32 guinea pigsor 16 mice The test substance is applied to the surface of the skin or injected under the skin of a guinea pig, or applied to the ear of a mouse. Their skin may show signs of redness, ulcers, scaling, inflammation, and itchiness. Tests for allergic reaction on skin. Included in Draize tests. Skin irritation/ corrosion 1-3 rabbits The test substance is applied to the shaved skin of a rabbit.
Their skin may show signs of redness, rash, lesions, scaling, inflammation, and/or other signs of damage. Tests for skin irritation (reversible skin damage) and skin corrosion (severe and irreversible skin damage). Included in Draize tests. Eye irritation/corrosion 1-3 rabbits The test substance is applied to a rabbit’s eye(s). Their eye(s) may show signs of redness, bleeding, ulcers, blindness, and/or other signs of damage Tests for eye irritation (reversible eye damage) and eye corrosion (severe and irreversible eye damage).
Included in Draize tests. Acute oral toxicity 7 rats The test substance is forced down a rat’s throat using a feeding tube. They may experience diarrhea, convulsions, bleeding from the mouth, seizures, paralysis, and/or death. Determines the amount of a substance that causes half of the exposed animals to die within 14 days of exposure when the substance is swallowed. Acute dermal toxicity 20 rats, rabbitsor guinea pigs The test substance is applied to the shaved skin of the rat, guinea pig, or rabbit and covered with a patch to keep them from licking or otherwise removing the substance.
Determines the amount of a substance that causes half of the exposed animals to die within 14 days of exposure when the substance is applied to the skin for 24 hours. Acute inhalation toxicity 20 rats A rat is placed into a tube and forced to inhale the test substance. They may experience bleeding of the nose, convulsions, paralysis, seizures, and/or death. Determines the amount of a substance that causes half of the exposed animals to die within 14 days of exposure when the substance is inhaled.
Repeat dose (28 day) and subchronic (90 day) toxicity 40 rats (28 day)or 80 rats (90 day) A rat is force-fed a substance, is forced to breathe in a substance, or has a substance applied to their skin daily for 28 or 90 days. At the end of the exposure period they are killed and their organs are examined. Tests for changes in the cells or organs caused by repeat exposure. Carcinogenicity or combined carcinogenicity/ chronic toxicity 400 mice or rats A mouse is exposed to a substance either by being fed the substance through their food or water, being force-fed the substance, having it rubbed on their skin, or being forced to inhale the substance.
After two years of daily exposure, they are killed so their tissues can be examined for signs of cancer (or other signs of toxicity). Tests for cancer and other long-term effects of exposure. Toxicokinetics 4-12 rats A rat is exposed to a substance either by being fed the substance through their food or water, being force-fed the substance, having it rubbed on their skin, or being forced to inhale the substance.
They may be exposed once or multiple times depending on the substance. Blood is drawn at daily intervals to determine the peak concentration of substance in the blood. They are then killed at a specific time-point; different animals are killed at different times to obtain a record of how the substance moves through their body over time. Measures the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of a substance throughout the tissues and organs following exposure.
Reproductive/ developmental screen 675 rats Male and female adult rats are exposed to the test substance, usually by force-feeding, for two to four weeks and then mated. The pregnant mother is then exposed daily throughout pregnancy and for four days after their pups are born. Four days after birth, they and their pups are killed and their tissues examined. Tests for effects on fertility, ability to reproduce, and birth defects.
Reproductive toxicity in two generations 2,600 rats Male and female adult rats are exposed, usually by force-feeding, for at least two weeks and then mated. The pregnant mothers are then exposed daily throughout pregnancy and breast-feeding and are then killed. After weaning, the pups are force-fed throughout their lifetimes, sometimes experiencing symptoms of chronic poisoning such as weight loss or convulsions.
Pups that survive until puberty are then mated, and force-feeding continues through the second generation's pregnancy and breast feeding. At the time of weaning of the second generation, mothers and pups are all killed and their tissues examined. Tests for effects on fertility, ability to reproduce, and birth defects. Developmental toxicity 480 rabbits (100 adult females and 480 pups) or 1,300 rats (100 adult females and 1,200 pups) A pregnant female is exposed, usually by force-feeding, starting at the initiation of pregnancy (through implantation) and contiuing throughout the pregnancy.
They are then killed on the day before they are expected to give birth (on average, 22 days for rats or 31 days for rabbits). Their pups are extracted and evaluated for signs of developmental abnormalities. Tests for birth defects. Genotoxicity/ mutagenicity* 12-500 miceor rats There are several different tests for genetic alterations that use mice or rats. In a common test, a mouse or rat is force-fed the substance on a daily basis for at least 14 days.
Samples of their bone marrow and/or blood are taken to look for genetic changes. Tests for the beginning stages of cancer.See Also: Mint Hill Animal Clinic
The zoo is going to be an incredible substitute position if you prefer to acquire animals photographs without the need of possessing a visit to safari in summer season. You can acquire their photos during the protected bench that is definitely accessible close to the cages. For making you accomplishment in getting the pictures of animals you want, you'll be able to abide by the following strategies.
Away from a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the recent blueness of your Florida sky, ran a little, tawny-haired boy. His bare ft, extending from his overalled legs, crackled versus the fallen palmettos. He leaped into the air, flinging his arms toward a flock of white doves circling over him.
By JAMES KANTERMarch 11, 2013BRUSSELS — European Union regulators announced a ban Monday on the import and sale of cosmetics containing ingredients tested on animals and to pledge more efforts to push other parts of the world, like China, to accept alternatives.The ban, which will take effect immediately, “gives an important signal on the value that Europe attaches to animal welfare,” Tonio Borg, the E.
U. commissioner for health and consumer policy, said in a statement.The European Union banned animal testing of finished cosmetic products in 2004. A second ban, on animal-tested ingredients, went into effect four years ago. But heavy lobbying by major cosmetics manufacturers resulted in an extension of the deadline for some tests for effects like allergies and cancer and for which there is still no substitute.
Monday’s action eliminated those remaining exemptions.Even before the new rule was officially announced, the cosmetics company L’Oréal, which is based in France, said it would respect the ban and “no longer sell in Europe any finished product with an ingredient that was tested on animals” after Monday.But other representatives of the European industry, worth about €70 billion, or $91 billion, annually, criticized the commission for putting the ban into effect before alternatives existed for some of the most complex tests.
“Europe’s idea is to put more pressure on other parts of the world to end animal testing, but the science doesn’t match that political timetable,” said Colin Mackay, a spokesman for Cosmetics Europe, a trade association.The most likely outcome would be “that consumers in Europe won’t have access to new products because we can’t ensure that some ingredients will be safe without access to suitable and adequate testing,” Mr.
Mackay said.The global divergence in safety rules could also mean that companies sell the same product globally, but market one version for countries like China backed up by safety evidence from animal tests, and another version for Europe backed up by evidence from alternative tests.And there were warnings on Monday that the ban still left a loophole. Shortly after the announcement, Dagmar Roth-Behrendt, a Socialist lawmaker from Germany who a decade ago helped to steer a measure through the European Parliament that resulted in the 2004 ban, said companies still could use ingredients from tests on animals as long as the tests were carried out for non-cosmetic products like pharmaceuticals or chemicals.
Ms. Roth-Behrendt said she did not know if the loophole “followed pressure from the industry,” but added, “This is wrong.” Consumers of products from deodorants to sunscreens are unlikely to notice an immediate difference from the new rules because cosmetics containing ingredients that were tested on animals before the ban can remain on the shelves.But the move could complicate trade relations with parts of the world like China that demand animal testing as a condition for marketing cosmetics.
Mr. Borg said in his statement that he would “engage with third countries to follow our European approach.”Mr. Borg will promise to continue helping finance the development of alternatives, so that Europe sets “an example of responsible innovation in cosmetics without any compromise on consumer safety.”Estée Lauder, a cosmetics manufacturer based in the United States, said it did not test products or ingredients on animals and it was increasing efforts to gain global acceptance for safety evaluations that did not rely on animal tests.
Those efforts include “programs in China and other markets where in vitro testing is not accepted in order to educate scientists on the scientifically validated safety record of these methods,” Estée Lauder said on its Web site.Estée Lauder said it does “not test our products or ingredients on animals, nor do we ask others to test on our behalf, except where required by law.” We're interested in your feedback on this page.
Tell us what you think.