This article is about the animation company owned by Disney. For information on the .pxr file format or the graphics designing computer, see Pixar Image Computer. Pixar Pixar's headquarters in Emeryville, California Type Subsidiary Industry Computer animation Motion pictures Predecessors The Graphics Group of Lucasfilm Computer Division Founded February 3, 1986 in Richmond, California, U.
S. Founders Edwin Catmull Alvy Ray Smith Headquarters 1200 Park Avenue, Emeryville, California, U.S. Key people Edwin Catmull(President)John Lasseter(CCO) Products Pixar Image Computer Pixar Renderman Marionette Parent Walt Disney Studios Website pixar.com Pixar (/ˈpɪksɑːr/), also referred to as Pixar Animation Studios, is an American computer animation film studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company.
Pixar began in 1979 as the Graphics Group, part of the Lucasfilm computer division, before its spin-out as a corporation in 1986, with funding by Apple Inc. co-founder Steve Jobs, who became the majority shareholder. Disney purchased Pixar in 2006 at a valuation of $7.4 billion, a transaction that resulted in Jobs becoming Disney's largest single shareholder at the time. Pixar is best known for CGI-animated feature films created with RenderMan, Pixar's own implementation of the industry-standard RenderMan image-rendering application programming interface, used to generate high-quality images.
Pixar has produced nineteen feature films, beginning with Toy Story (1995), which was the first-ever computer-animated feature film, and its most recent being Coco (2017). All 19 of its films have debuted with CinemaScore ratings of at least an "A−," indicating positive receptions with audiences. The studio has also produced several short films. As of July 2017, its feature films have earned approximately $11 billion at the worldwide box office, with an average worldwide gross of $634 million per film.
Finding Nemo (2003), along with its sequel Finding Dory (2016), as well as Toy Story 3 (2010) are among the 50 highest-grossing films of all time, with the lattermost film being the third all-time highest-grossing animated film with a gross of $1.063 billion. Fourteen of Pixar's films are also among the 50 highest-grossing animated films of all time. The studio has earned seventeen Academy Awards, eight Golden Globe Awards, and eleven Grammy Awards, among many other awards and acknowledgments.
Many of Pixar's films have been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature since its inauguration in 2001, with eight winning; this includes Finding Nemo and Toy Story 3, along with The Incredibles (2004), Ratatouille (2007), WALL-E (2008), Up (2009), Brave (2012), and Inside Out (2015). Monsters, Inc. (2001) and Cars (2006) are the only two films that were nominated for the award without winning it, while Cars 2 (2011), Monsters University (2013), The Good Dinosaur (2015), Finding Dory, and Cars 3 (2017) have not been nominated.
Up and Toy Story 3 were also the respective second and third animated films to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, the first being Walt Disney Animation Studios' Beauty and the Beast (1991). Luxo Jr., a character from the studio's 1986 short film of the same name, is the studio's mascot. On September 6, 2009, Pixar executives John Lasseter, Brad Bird, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton, and Lee Unkrich were presented with the Golden Lion award for Lifetime Achievement by the biennial Venice Film Festival.
The award was presented by Lucasfilm's founder George Lucas. The studio's headquarters are located in 1200 Park Ave, Emeryville, California, USA. History Early history A Pixar Computer at the Computer History Museum with the 1986–95 logo on it. Pixar got its start in 1974 when New York Institute of Technology's (NYIT) founder Alexander Schure, who was also the owner of a traditional animation studio, established the Computer Graphics Lab (CGL), recruited computer scientists who shared his ambitions about creating the world's first computer-animated film.
Edwin Catmull and Malcolm Blanchard were the first to be hired and were soon joined by Alvy Ray Smith and David DiFrancesco some months later, which were the four original members of the Computer Graphics Lab. Schure kept pouring money into the computer graphics lab, an estimated $15 million, giving the group everything they desired and driving NYIT into serious financial troubles. Eventually, the group realized they needed to work in a real film studio in order to reach their goal, and when George Lucas approached them and offered them a job at his studio, six employees decided to move over to Lucasfilm.
During the following months, they gradually resigned from CGL, found temporary jobs for about a year to avoid making Schure suspicious, before they joined The Graphics Group at Lucasfilm. The Graphics Group, which was one-third of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm, was launched in 1979 with the hiring of Catmull from NYIT, where he was in charge of the Computer Graphics Lab. He was then reunited with Smith, who also made the journey from NYIT to Lucasfilm, and was made director of The Graphics Group.
At NYIT, the researchers pioneered many of the CG foundation techniques—in particular the invention of the alpha channel (by Catmull and Smith). Years later, the CGL produced a few frames of an experimental film called The Works. After moving to Lucasfilm, the team worked on creating the precursor to RenderMan, called REYES (for "renders everything you ever saw") and developed a number of critical technologies for CG—including "particle effects" and various animation tools.
In 1982, the team began working on special effects film sequences with Industrial Light & Magic. After years of research, and key milestones such as the Genesis Effect in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan and the Stained Glass Knight in Young Sherlock Holmes, the group, which then numbered 40 individuals, was spun out as a corporation in February 1986 by Catmull and Smith. Among the 38 remaining employees, there were also Malcolm Blanchard, David DiFrancesco, Ralph Guggenheim and Bill Reeves, who had been part of the team since the days of NYIT.
Tom Duff, also an NYIT member, would later join Pixar after its formation. With Lucas' 1983 divorce, which coincided with the sudden dropoff in revenues from Star Wars licenses following the release of Return of the Jedi, they knew he would most likely sell the whole Graphics Group. Worried that the employees would be lost to them if that happened, which would prevent the creation of the first computer animated movie, they concluded that the best way to keep the team together was to turn the group into an independent company.
But Moore's Law also said that the first film was still some years away, and they needed to focus on a proper product while waiting for the computers to become powerful enough. Eventually, they decided they should be a hardware company in the meantime, with their Pixar Image Computer as the core product, a system primarily sold to government agencies and the scientific and medical community. In 1983, Nolan Bushnell founded a new computer-guided animation studio called Kadabrascope as a subsidiary of his Chuck E.
Cheese's Pizza Time Theatres company, which was founded in 1977. Only one major project was made out of the new studio, an animated Christmas movie for NBC starring Chuck E. Cheese and other PTT mascots. The animation movement would be made using Tweening instead of traditional cel animation. After the North American Video Game Crash of 1983, Bushnell started selling some subsidiaries of PTT to keep the business afloat.
Sente Technologies (another division, was founded to have games distributed in PTT stores) would be sold to Bally Games and Kadabrascope would be sold to LucasFilm. The Kadabrascope assets would be combined with the Computer Division of LucasFilm. Coincidentally, Steve Jobs, a main Apple shareholder and former CEO, worked under Bushnell in 1973 as a technician at his other company Atari, which Bushnell sold to Warner Communications in 1976 to focus on PTT.
 PTT would later go bankrupt in 1985 and be acquired by ShowBiz Pizza Place. The newly independent Pixar (1986) was headed by Edwin Catmull as President and Alvy Ray Smith as Executive Vice President. While looking for investors, Steve Jobs showed interest, but initially Lucas found his offer too low. Yet he eventually accepted after it turned out to be impossible to find other investors. Jobs who had recently been fired from Apple and was now founder and CEO of the new computer company NeXT, paid $5 million of his own money to George Lucas for technology rights and invested $5 million cash as capital into the company, joining the board of directors as chairman.
 At the time Walt Disney Studios was interested and eventually bought and used the Pixar Image Computer and custom software written by Pixar as part of their Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) project, to migrate the laborious ink and paint part of the 2D animation process to a more automated method. In a bid to drive sales of the system and increase the company’s capital, Jobs suggested to make the system available to mainstream users and released the product to the market.
Pixar employee John Lasseter, who had long been working on not-for-profit short demonstration animations, such as Luxo Jr. (1986) to show off the device's capabilities, premiered his creations at SIGGRAPH, the computer graphics industry's largest convention, to great fanfare. However, the Image Computer never sold well. Inadequate sales threatened to put the company out of business as financial losses grew.
Jobs invested more and more money in exchange for an increased stake in the company, reducing the proportion of management and employee ownership until eventually, his total investment of $50 million gave him control of the entire company. In 1989, Lasseter's growing animation department, originally composed of just four people (Lasseter, Bill Reeves, Eben Ostby, and Sam Leffler), was turned into a division that produced computer-animated commercials for outside companies.
 In April 1990, Pixar sold its hardware division, including all proprietary hardware technology and imaging software, to Vicom Systems, and transferred 18 of Pixar's approximately 100 employees. That same year, Pixar moved from San Rafael to Richmond, California to Burbank, California. Pixar released some of its software tools on the open market for Macintosh and Windows systems. RenderMan was one of the leading 3D packages of the early 1990s, and Typestry was a special-purpose 3D text renderer that competed with RayDream addDepth.
During this period Pixar continued its successful relationship with Walt Disney Feature Animation, a studio whose corporate parent would ultimately become its most important partner. As 1991 began, however, the layoff of 30 employees in the company's computer hardware department—including the company's president, Chuck Kolstad, reduced the total number of employees to just 42, essentially its original number.
 Yet Pixar made a historic $26 million deal with Disney to produce three computer-animated feature films, the first of which was Toy Story. By then the software programmers, who were doing RenderMan and IceMan, and Lasseter's animation department, which made television commercials (and four Luxo Jr. shorts for Sesame Street the same year), were all that remained of Pixar. Despite the total income from these projects the company continued to lose money and Jobs, as chairman of the board and now the full owner, often considered selling it.
Even as late as 1994 Jobs contemplated selling Pixar to other companies such as Hallmark Cards, Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and Oracle CEO and co-founder Larry Ellison. Only after learning from New York critics that Toy Story would probably be a hit—and confirming that Disney would distribute it for the 1995 Christmas season—did he decide to give Pixar another chance. For the first time, he also took an active leadership role in the company and made himself CEO.
Toy Story went on to gross more than $362 million worldwide and, when Pixar held its initial public offering on November 29, 1995, it exceeded Netscape's as the biggest IPO of the year. In only its first half-hour of trading Pixar stock shot from $22 to $45, delaying trading because of un-matched buy orders. Shares climbed to $49 before closing the day at $39. During the 1990s and 2000s, Pixar gradually developed the "Pixar Braintrust," the studio's primary creative development process, in which all directors, writers, and lead storyboard artists at the studio look at each other's projects on a regular basis and give each other very candid "notes" (the industry term for constructive criticism).
 The Braintrust operates under a philosophy of a "filmmaker-driven studio," in which creatives help each other move their films forward through a process somewhat like peer review, as opposed to the traditional Hollywood approach of an "executive-driven studio" in which directors are micromanaged through "mandatory notes" from development executives ranking above the producers. According to Catmull, it evolved out of the working relationship between Lasseter, Stanton, Docter, Unkrich, and Joe Ranft on Toy Story.
 As a result of the success of Toy Story, Pixar built a new studio at the Emeryville campus which was designed by PWP Landscape Architecture and opened in November 2000. Disney subsidiary (2006–present) Pixar and Disney had disagreements after the production of Toy Story 2 (1999). Originally intended as a straight-to-video release (and thus not part of Pixar's three-picture deal), the film was eventually upgraded to a theatrical release during production.
Pixar demanded that the film then be counted toward the three-picture agreement, but Disney refused. Though profitable for both, Pixar later complained that the arrangement was not equitable. Pixar was responsible for creation and production, while Disney handled marketing and distribution. Profits and production costs were split 50-50, but Disney exclusively owned all story, character and sequel rights and also collected a 10- to 15-percent distribution fee.
The lack of story, character and sequel rights was perhaps the most onerous aspect to Pixar and set the stage for a contentious relationship. The two companies attempted to reach a new agreement for ten months before it fell through in January 2004. The new deal would be only for distribution, as Pixar intended to control production and own the resulting story, character and sequel rights themselves while Disney would own the right of first refusal to distribute any sequels.
Pixar also wanted to finance their films on their own and collect 100 percent of the profits, paying Disney only the 10- to 15-percent distribution fee. More importantly, as part of any distribution agreement with Disney, Pixar demanded control over films already in production under their old agreement, including The Incredibles (2004) and Cars (2006). Disney considered these conditions unacceptable, but Pixar would not concede.
 Disagreements between Steve Jobs and then-Disney chairman and CEO Michael Eisner made the negotiations more difficult than they otherwise might have been. They broke down completely in mid-2004, with Disney forming Circle 7 Animation and Jobs declaring that Pixar was actively seeking partners other than Disney. Despite this announcement, Pixar did not enter negotiations with other distributors, although a Warner Bros.
spokesperson told CNN, "We would love to be in business with Pixar. They are a great company." After a lengthy hiatus, negotiations between the two companies resumed following the departure of Eisner from Disney in September 2005. In preparation for potential fallout between Pixar and Disney, Jobs announced in late 2004 that Pixar would no longer release movies at the Disney-dictated November time frame, but during the more lucrative early summer months.
This would also allow Pixar to release DVDs for their major releases during the Christmas shopping season. An added benefit of delaying Cars from November 4, 2005, to June 9, 2006, was to extend the time frame remaining on the Pixar-Disney contract, to see how things would play out between the two companies. Pending the Disney acquisition of Pixar, the two companies created a distribution deal for the intended 2007 release of Ratatouille, if the acquisition fell through, to ensure that this one film would still be released through Disney's distribution channels.
In contrast to the earlier Pixar deal, Ratatouille was to remain a Pixar property and Disney would have received only a distribution fee. The completion of Disney's Pixar acquisition, however, nullified this distribution arrangement. In 2006, Disney ultimately agreed to buy Pixar for approximately $7.4 billion in an all-stock deal. Following Pixar shareholder approval, the acquisition was completed May 5, 2006.
The transaction catapulted Steve Jobs, who was the majority shareholder of Pixar with 50.1%, to Disney's largest individual shareholder with 7% and a new seat on its board of directors. Jobs' new Disney holdings exceeded holdings belonging to ex-CEO Michael Eisner, the previous top shareholder, who still held 1.7%; and Disney Director Emeritus Roy E. Disney, who held almost 1% of the corporation's shares.
Pixar shareholders received 2.3 shares of Disney common stock for each share of Pixar common stock redeemed. As part of the deal, John Lasseter, by then Executive Vice President, became Chief Creative Officer (reporting directly to President and CEO Robert Iger and consulting with Disney Director Roy E. Disney) of both Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios (including its division DisneyToon Studios), as well as the Principal Creative Adviser at Walt Disney Imagineering, which designs and builds the company's theme parks.
 Catmull retained his position as President of Pixar, while also becoming President of Walt Disney Animation Studios, reporting to Bob Iger and Dick Cook, chairman of The Walt Disney Studios. Steve Jobs' position as Pixar's chairman and chief executive officer was abolished, and instead, he took a place on the Disney board of directors. After the deal closed in May 2006, Lasseter revealed that Iger had realized Disney needed to buy Pixar while watching a parade at the opening of Hong Kong Disneyland in September 2005.
 Iger noticed that of all the Disney characters in the parade, not one was a character that Disney had created within the last ten years since all the newer ones had been created by Pixar. Upon returning to Burbank, Iger commissioned a financial analysis that confirmed that Disney had actually lost money on animation for the past decade, then presented that information to the board of directors at his first board meeting after being promoted from COO to CEO, and the board, in turn, authorized him to explore the possibility of a deal with Pixar.
 Lasseter and Catmull were wary when the topic of Disney buying Pixar first came up, but Jobs asked them to give Iger a chance (based on his own experience negotiating with Iger in summer 2005 for the rights to ABC shows for the fifth-generation iPod Classic), and in turn, Iger convinced them of the sincerity of his epiphany that Disney really needed to re-focus on animation. John Lasseter appears with characters from Up at the 2009 Venice Film Festival.
Lasseter and Catmull's oversight of both the Disney Animation and Pixar studios did not mean that the two studios were merging, however. In fact, additional conditions were laid out as part of the deal to ensure that Pixar remained a separate entity, a concern that analysts had expressed about the Disney deal. Some of those conditions were that Pixar HR policies would remain intact, including the lack of employment contracts.
Also, the Pixar name was guaranteed to continue, and the studio would remain in its current Emeryville, California, location with the "Pixar" sign. Finally, branding of films made post-merger would be "Disney•Pixar" (beginning with Cars). Jim Morris, producer of WALL-E (2008), became general manager of Pixar. In this new position, Morris took charge of the day-to-day running of the studio facilities and products.
 After a few years, Lasseter and Catmull were able to successfully transfer the basic principles of the Pixar Braintrust to Disney Animation, although meetings of the Disney Story Trust are reportedly "more polite" than those of the Pixar Braintrust. Catmull later explained that after the merger, to maintain the studios' separate identities and cultures (notwithstanding the fact of common ownership and common senior management), he and Lasseter "drew a hard line" that each studio was solely responsible for its own projects and would not be allowed to borrow personnel from or lend tasks out to the other.
 That rule ensures that each studio maintains "local ownership" of projects and can be proud of its own work. Thus, for example, when Pixar had issues with Ratatouille and Disney Animation had issues with Bolt (2008), "nobody bailed them out" and each studio was required "to solve the problem on its own" even when they knew there were personnel at the other studio who theoretically could have helped.
 In November 2014, Morris was promoted to president of Pixar, while his counterpart at Disney Animation, general manager Andrew Millstein, was also promoted to president of that studio. Both continue to report to Catmull, who retains the title of president of both Disney Animation and Pixar. In December 2017, it was announced that given the proposed acquisition of 21st Century Fox by Disney, 20th Century Fox's computer animation studio Blue Sky Studios will become a sister studio to both Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios.
 Expansion On April 20, 2010, Pixar opened Pixar Canada in the downtown area of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The roughly 2,000 square meters studio produced seven short films based on Toy Story and Cars characters. In October 2013, the studio was closed down to refocus Pixar's efforts at its main headquarters. Headquarters (campus) The Steve Jobs Building at Pixar's campus in Emeryville.
The atrium of the Pixar campus When Steve Jobs, chief executive officer of Apple Inc. and Pixar, and John Lasseter, then the executive vice president of Pixar, decided to move their studios from a leased space in Point Richmond, California, to larger quarters of their own, they chose a 20-acre site in Emeryville, California, formerly occupied by Del Monte Foods, Inc. The first of several buildings, a high-tech structure designed by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, has special foundations and generators to ensure continued film production, even through major earthquakes.
The character of the building is intended to abstractly recall Emeryville's industrial past. The two-story steel-and-masonry building is a collaborative space with many pathways. Feature films and shorts See also: List of Pixar films, List of Pixar shorts, and List of Pixar awards and nominations Traditions While some of Pixar's first animators were former cel animators, including John Lasseter, they also came from computer animation or were fresh college graduates.
 A large number of animators that make up the animation department at Pixar were hired around the time Pixar released A Bug's Life (1998), Monsters, Inc. (2001) and Finding Nemo (2003). Although Toy Story was a successful film, it was Pixar's first feature film at the time, becoming the first major computer-animation studio to successfully produce theatrical feature films. The majority of the animation industry was (and still is) located in Los Angeles while Pixar is located 350 miles (560 km) north in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Also, traditional hand-drawn animation was still the dominant medium for feature animated films. With the scarcity of Los Angeles-based animators willing to move their families so far north, give up traditional animation, and try computer animation, Pixar's new hires at this time either came directly from college or had worked outside feature animation. For those who had traditional animation skills, the Pixar animation software Marionette was designed so that traditional animators would require a minimum amount of training before becoming productive.
 In an interview with PBS talk show host Tavis Smiley, Lasseter said that Pixar's films follow the same theme of self-improvement as the company itself has: with the help of friends or family, a character ventures out into the real world and learns to appreciate his friends and family. At the core, Lasseter said, "it's gotta be about the growth of the main character and how he changes." As of 2016, every Pixar feature film produced for Disney has included a character voiced by John Ratzenberger, who had famously starred in the TV show Cheers.
Pixar paid tribute to their "good luck charm" in the end credits of Cars (2006) by parodying scenes from three of their earlier films, replacing all of the characters with motor vehicles. After the third scene, Mack (his character in Cars) realizes that the same actor has been voicing characters in every film. Another longstanding Pixar tradition is their movie trailers do not contain actual footage from the released film, instead the film's characters and setting are used in a short story to promote the film.
Due to the traditions that have occurred within the film, such as anthropomorphic animals and easter egg crossovers between movies that have been spotted by fans, a blog post entitled The Pixar Theory was published in 2013 by Jon Negroni proposing that all of the characters within the Pixar universe were related. Sequels and prequels Toy Story 2 was originally commissioned by Disney as a 60-minute direct-to-video release.
Expressing doubts about the strength of the material, John Lasseter convinced the Pixar team to start from scratch and make the sequel their third full-length feature film. Following the release of Toy Story 2 in 1999, Pixar and Disney had a gentlemen's agreement that Disney would not make any sequels without Pixar's involvement, despite their own right to do so. After the two companies were unable to agree on a new deal, Disney announced in 2004 they would plan move forward on sequels with/without Pixar, and put Toy Story 3 into pre-production at Disney's new CGI division Circle 7 Animation.
However, when Lasseter was placed in charge of all Disney and Pixar animation following the 2006 merger of the companies, he put all sequels on hold and Toy Story 3 was cancelled. In May 2006, it was announced that Toy Story 3 was back in pre-production with a new plot and under Pixar's control. The film was released on June 18, 2010, as Pixar's eleventh feature film. Shortly after announcing the resurrection of Toy Story 3, Lasseter fueled speculation on further sequels by saying, "If we have a great story, we'll do a sequel.
"Cars 2, Pixar's first non-Toy Story sequel, was officially announced in April 2008 and released on June 24, 2011, as their twelfth. Monsters University, a prequel to Monsters, Inc. (2001), was announced in April 2010 and initially set for release in November 2012; the release date was pushed to June 21, 2013, due to Pixar's past success with summer releases, according to a Disney executive.
 In June 2011, Tom Hanks, who voiced Woody in the Toy Story series, implied that Toy Story 4 was "in the works," although it had not yet been confirmed by the studio. In April 2013, Finding Dory, a sequel to Finding Nemo, was announced for a June 17, 2016, release. In March 2014, Incredibles 2 and Cars 3 were announced as films in development. In November 2014, Toy Story 4 was confirmed to be in development with Lasseter serving as director.
 In an interview, Lasseter stated that "[a] lot of people in the industry view us doing sequels as being for the business of it, but for us, it's pure passion...One of the things that was very important for me as an artist is to continue directing. When I direct, I get to work with the individual artists, with the animators." In August 2015, at the D23 Expo, Lasseter said that the film would focus on the romance between Woody and Bo Peep.
 Its story will be built on the fact that Bo Peep was absent in Toy Story 3, with Woody and Buzz Lightyear trying to find her and bring her back. Adaptation to television Toy Story was the first Pixar film to be adapted onto television, with Buzz Lightyear of Star Command film and TV series. Cars became the second with the help of Cars Toons, a series of 3-to-5-minute short films running between regular Disney Channel shows and featuring Mater (the tow truck voiced by comedian Larry the Cable Guy).
 Between 2013 and 2014, Pixar released its first two television specials, Toy Story of Terror! and Toy Story That Time Forgot. A television series spin-off of Monsters, Inc. was confirmed in a Disney press release in November 2017. Animation and live-action All Pixar films to date have been computer-animated features, but WALL-E so far has been the only Pixar film to not be completely animated, as it featured a small amount of live-action footage.
1906, the live-action film by Brad Bird based on a screenplay and novel by James Dalessandro about the 1906 earthquake, was in development but has since been abandoned by Bird and Pixar. Bird has stated that he was "interested in moving into the live-action realm with some projects" while "staying at Pixar [because] it's a very comfortable environment for me to work in." The Toy Story Toons short, Hawaiian Vacation also includes the fish and shark as live-action.
Jim Morris, general manager of Pixar, produced Disney's John Carter (2012), which Pixar's Andrew Stanton co-wrote and directed. Pixar assisted in the story development of Disney's The Jungle Book (2016), as well as providing suggestions for the film's end credits sequence. Pixar representatives have also assisted in the English localization of several Studio Ghibli films, mainly those from Hayao Miyazaki.
 Upcoming projects Incredibles 2 was announced in March 2014, to be directed by Brad Bird, with a release date set for June 15, 2018. In November 2014, it was announced that John Lasseter will direct Toy Story 4, scheduled for release on June 21, 2019. However, in July 2017, it was announced that Lasseter had stepped down as director, with Josh Cooley serving as sole director.
 Two untitled Pixar films have been scheduled for March 13 and June 19, 2020, which are said to be original projects. In April 2017, another untitled upcoming film was announced and slated for a June 18, 2021 release. In July 2017, it was announced that Dan Scanlon will direct an original film about a "suburban fantasy world" in which two teenaged brothers search for their missing father.
 Co-op Program The Pixar Co-op Program, a part of the Pixar University professional development program, allows their animators to use Pixar resources to produce independent films. The first CGI project accepted to the program was Borrowed Time (2016); all previously accepted films were live-action. Exhibitions Since December 2005, Pixar has held exhibitions celebrating the art and artists of Pixar, over their first twenty years in animation.
 Pixar: 20 Years of Animation Pixar celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2006 with the release of Pixar's seventh feature film, Cars, and held two exhibitions, from April to June 2010, at Science Centre Singapore, in Jurong East, Singapore, and the London Science Museum, London. It was their first time holding an exhibition in Singapore. The exhibition highlights consist of work-in-progress sketches from various Pixar productions, clay sculptures of their characters, and an autostereoscopic short showcasing a 3D version of the exhibition pieces which is projected through four projectors.
Another highlight is the Zoetrope, where visitors of the exhibition are shown figurines of Toy Story characters "animated" in real-life through the zoetrope. Pixar: 25 Years of Animation Pixar celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2011 with the release of its twelfth feature film, Cars 2. Pixar had celebrated its 20th anniversary with the first Cars. The Pixar: 25 Years of Animation exhibition was held at the Oakland Museum of California from July 2010 until January 2011.
 The exhibition tour debuts in Hong Kong and was held at the Hong Kong Heritage Museum in Sha Tin, between March 27 and July 11, 2011. In 2013, the exhibition was held in the EXPO in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. For 6 months from July 6, 2012 until January 6, 2013 the city of Bonn (Germany) hosted the public showing, On November 16, 2013, the exhibition moved to the Art Ludique museum in Paris, France, with a scheduled run until March 2, 2014.
 The exhibition moved to three Spanish cities later in 2014 and 2015: Madrid (held in CaixaForum from March 21 until June 22), Barcelona (held also in Caixaforum from February until May) and Zaragoza. Pixar: 25 Years of Animation includes all of the artwork from Pixar: 20 Years of Animation, plus art from Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up, and Toy Story 3. The Science Behind Pixar The Science Behind Pixar is a travelling exhibition that first opened on June 28, 2015, at the Museum of Science in Boston, Massachusetts.
It was developed by the Museum of Science in collaboration with Pixar. The exhibit features forty interactive elements that explain the production pipeline at Pixar. They are divided into eight sections, each demonstrating a step in the filmmaking process: Modeling, Rigging, Surfaces, Sets & Cameras, Animation, Simulation, Lighting, and Rendering. Before visitors enter the exhibit, they watch a short video at an introductory theater.
The exhibition closed on January 10, 2016, and moved to the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where it ran from March 12 to September 5. After that, it moved to the California Science Center in Los Angeles, California and was open from October 15, 2016 to April 9, 2017. It made another stop at the Science Museum of Minnesota in St. Paul, Minnesota from May 27 through September 4, 2017.
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^ "The Science Behind Pixar at pixar.com". Retrieved July 8, 2016. External links Official website Pixar's channel on YouTube Pixar Animation Studios on IMDbPro (subscription required) Pixar Animation Studios at the Big Cartoon DataBase List of the 40 founding employees of Pixar v t e Pixar Feature films Released Toy Story (1995) A Bug's Life (1998) Toy Story 2 (1999) Monsters, Inc. (2001) Finding Nemo (2003) The Incredibles (2004) Cars (2006) Ratatouille (2007) WALL-E (2008) Up (2009) Toy Story 3 (2010) Cars 2 (2011) Brave (2012) Monsters University (2013) Inside Out (2015) The Good Dinosaur (2015) Finding Dory (2016) Cars 3 (2017) Coco (2017) Upcoming Incredibles 2 (2018) Toy Story 4 (2019) Short films Luxo Jr.
(1986) Red's Dream (1987) Tin Toy (1988) Knick Knack (1989) Geri's Game (1997) For the Birds (2000) Mike's New Car (2002) Boundin' (2003) Jack-Jack Attack (2005) Mr. Incredible and Pals (2005) One Man Band (2005) Mater and the Ghostlight (2006) Lifted (2006) Your Friend the Rat (2007) Presto (2008) BURN-E (2008) Partly Cloudy (2009) Dug's Special Mission (2009) George & A.J. (2009) Day & Night (2010) La Luna (2011) Hawaiian Vacation (2011) Small Fry (2011) Partysaurus Rex (2012) The Legend of Mor'du (2012) The Blue Umbrella (2013) Party Central (2013) Lava (2014) Sanjay's Super Team (2015) Riley's First Date? (2015) Piper (2016) Lou (2017) Series Cars Toons (2008–14) Toy Story Toons (2011–12) Compilations Tiny Toy Stories (1996) Pixar Short Films Collection, Volume 1 (2007) Cars Toons: Mater's Tall Tales (2010) Pixar Short Films Collection, Volume 2 (2012) Other work Beach Chair (1986) Light & Heavy (1990) Television specials Toy Story of Terror! (2013) Toy Story That Time Forgot (2014) Franchises Toy Story (1995–present) Monsters, Inc.
(2001–13) Finding Nemo (2003–present) The Incredibles (2004–present) Cars (2006–present) Associated productions The Adventures of André & Wally B. (1984) It's Tough to Be a Bug! (1998) Buzz Lightyear of Star Command: The Adventure Begins (2000) Buzz Lightyear of Star Command (2000–01) Exploring the Reef (2003) Turtle Talk with Crush (2004) John Carter (2012) Planes (2013) Planes: Fire & Rescue (2014) Borrowed Time (2016) Documentaries The Pixar Story (2007) Products Pixar Image Computer RenderMan Marionette People John Lasseter Edwin Catmull Steve Jobs Alvy Ray Smith Jim Morris See also List of Pixar characters List of Pixar awards and nominations feature films short films List of Pixar film references Computer Graphics Lab Industrial Light & Magic Lucasfilm Animation Circle 7 Animation Pixar Canada A Computer Animated Hand The Works The Shadow King Pixar universe theory Walt Disney Animation Studios The Walt Disney Studios Book Category Links to related articles v t e The Walt Disney Company Company timeline Retlaw Enterprises Criticism Company officials Founders Walter Elias Disney Roy Oliver Disney Executives Bob Iger (CEO) Alan N.
Braverman (SEVP/GC) Christine McCarthy (CFO) Board of directors Susan Arnold John S. Chen Jack Dorsey Bob Iger (Chairman) Fred Langhammer Aylwin Lewis Monica C. Lozano Robert Matschullat Mark Parker Sheryl Sandberg Orin C. Smith (Independent Lead) Walt Disney Studios Walt Disney Animation Studios Walt Disney Pictures Distribution Touchstone Pictures Disney Music Group Disney Theatrical Group Disneynature Home Entertainment Lucasfilm Marvel Studios Pixar Media Networks Disney–ABC TV Group ABC Entertainment Group ABC TV Stations Disney Channel Hulu ESPN (80%) A&E Networks (50%) BAMTech (75%) Parks and Resorts Adventures by Disney Disney Cruise Line Walt Disney Imagineering Disneyland Resort Disney Regional Entertainment Disney Vacation Club Disneyland Paris Walt Disney World Resort Hong Kong Disneyland Resort Shanghai Disney Resort DCPI Licensing Disney Store Disney Publishing Worldwide Disney English Disney Digital Network Babble Disney Online Maker Studios Games and Interactive Experiences Disney Mobile The Muppets Studio International Argentina CIS France India UTV Software Communications Italy Latin America Other assets Buena Vista Marvel Entertainment Reedy Creek Energy See also: Acquisition of 21st Century Fox (pending) v t e Walt Disney Studios Production Walt Disney Pictures Disneynature Lucasfilm Marvel Studios Animation Walt Disney Animation Studios DisneyToon Studios Pixar Distribution Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Touchstone Pictures El Capitan complex El Capitan Theatre Hollywood Masonic Temple Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment Disney Music Group Walt Disney Records Hollywood Records Disney Theatrical Group Disney on Ice Disney Theatrical Productions (Disney On Broadway) New Amsterdam Theatre Studio Production Services Golden Oak Ranch The Prospect Studios Walt Disney Studios (Burbank) Former units Caravan Pictures Circle 7 Animation Hollywood Pictures Miramax Dimension Films Key people Sean Bailey Ed Catmull Kevin Feige Alan F.
Horn Kathleen Kennedy John Lasseter Thomas Schumacher Related Feld Entertainment Ice Follies And Holiday on Ice UTV Motion Pictures Disney Television Animation Parent: The Walt Disney Company v t e John Lasseter Directed Feature films Toy Story (1995) A Bug's Life (1998) Toy Story 2 (1999) Cars (2006) Cars 2 (2011) Short films Luxo Jr. (1986) Red's Dream (1987) Tin Toy (1988) Knick Knack (1989) Mater and the Ghostlight (2006) Cars Toons (2008) Produced Short films The Adventures of André and Wally B.
(1984) Luxo Jr. (1986) Written Feature films Toy Story (1995) A Bug's Life (1998) Toy Story 2 (1999) Cars (2006) Toy Story 3 (2010) Cars 2 (2011) Planes (2013) The Pirate Fairy (2014) Short films Luxo Jr. (1986) Red's Dream (1987) Tin Toy (1988) Knick Knack (1989) Mater and the Ghostlight (2006) Studios Walt Disney Animation Studios Pixar Animation Studios DisneyToon Studios Other businesses Lasseter Family Winery v t e Steve Jobs Career Timeline Apple Computer Macintosh NeXT Pixar Return to Apple Legacy Artistic depictions Honors and public recognition Family Laurene Powell Jobs (wife) Mona Simpson (sister) Chrisann Brennan (mother of his first born) Lisa Brennan-Jobs (daughter) Related Stevenote Reality distortion field Stay Hungry Stay Foolish Jackling House Seva Foundation Venus 1984 commercial Think different Steve Wozniak v t e Lucasfilm Productions Films American Graffiti (1973) Star Wars (1977) More American Graffiti (1979) The Empire Strikes Back (1980) Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) Return of the Jedi (1983) Twice Upon a Time (1983) Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) Latino (1985) Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985) Labyrinth (1986) Howard the Duck (1986) Tucker: The Man and His Dream (1988) Willow (1988) The Land Before Time (1988) Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) Radioland Murders (1994) Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999) Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002) Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith (2005) Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008) Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008) Red Tails (2012) Strange Magic (2015) Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) Rogue One (2016) Star Wars: The Last Jedi (2017) Solo (2018) TV series Star Wars: Droids (1985–86) Star Wars: Ewoks (1985–86) Maniac Mansion (1990–93) The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–93) Star Wars: Clone Wars (2003–05) Star Wars: The Clone Wars (2008–14) Star Wars Rebels (2014–present) Lego Star Wars: The Freemaker Adventures (2016–present) Star Wars Detours (unaired) TV films Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (1984) Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985) Theme park films Captain EO (1986) Star Tours (1987) ExtraTERRORestrial Alien Encounter (1995) Star Tours – The Adventures Continue (2011) Franchises Star Wars Indiana Jones Related productions THX 1138 (1971) Divisions Industrial Light & Magic Skywalker Sound Lucasfilm Animation LucasArts Former divisions The Droid Works EditDroid Graphics Group (Pixar) Kerner Optical SoundDroid THX People George Lucas (Founder) Kathleen Kennedy (President) Howard Roffman (EVP, Franchise Management) Parent: Walt Disney Studios (The Walt Disney Company) v t e Film studios in the United States and Canada Majors 20th Century Fox Columbia Pictures Paramount Pictures Universal Pictures Walt Disney Studios Warner Bros.
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Away from a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the recent blueness on the Florida sky, ran a small, tawny-haired boy. His bare toes, extending from his overalled legs, crackled versus the fallen palmettos. He leaped in to the air, flinging his arms toward a flock of white doves circling higher than him.
"From the beginning, I kept saying it's not the technology that's going to entertain audiences, it's the story. When you go and see a really great live-action film, you don't walk out and say 'that new Panavision camera was staggering, it made the film so good'. The computer is a tool, and it's in the service of the story." —John Lasseter, co-founder of Pixar "Where story is king." —Company motto Pixar Animation Studios, a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company, is an Academy Award®-winning film studio with world-renowned technical, creative and production capabilities in the art of computer animation and creators of some of the most successful and beloved animated films of all time.
Pixar has so far produced eleventeen films films: Toy Story, A Bug's Life, Toy Story 2, Monsters, Inc., Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Cars, Ratatouille, WALL•E, Up, Toy Story 3, Cars 2, Brave, Monsters University, Inside Out, The Good Dinosaur, Finding Dory, Cars 3 and Coco. History Pixar's climb to the pinnacle of computer animation success was a quick one, and the company continues to push the envelope in its art and technology inspired movie-making endeavors.
1979-85: Origins Pixar's tenuous evolution began in the 1970s when millionaire Alexander Schare, then president of the New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), was looking for someone to create an animated film from a sound recording of Tubby the Tuba. Enter a computer scientist named Ed Catmull with a Ph.D. from the University of Utah, who along with several others set up house (at Schare's expense) at NYIT's Long Island campus to work with computer graphics.
Though Tubby the Tuba was never made, the team successfully produced video artwork. When creative mogul George Lucas proposed moving the team to the West Coast in 1979 as part of Lucasfilm Ltd., the breeding ground of the original Star Wars trilogy, Catmull and his colleagues agreed. Over the next few years, Catmull and his ensemble created innovative graphics programs and equipment for Lucas, including an imaging computer called the 'Pixar.
' The Pixar was then used to develop high-tech graphics and animation sequences for Lucasfilm projects. Unlike other computers, Pixar's software constructed high-resolution, three-dimensional color images of virtually anything, from buildings and cars to tornadoes and aliens. Remarkably, Pixar was also capable of helping medical professionals at Johns Hopkins diagnose diseases from 3D renderings of CAT-scans and x-rays; giving weather technicians new images from satellites; and even helping prospectors locate oil from enhanced seismic readings--all at a speed some 200 times faster than previous computer programs.
In 1984, John Lasseter, who had met Catmull at a computer graphics conference and was employed by Walt Disney Studios, visited Lucasfilm for a month-long stint. Lasseter, who had graduated from the California Institute of the Arts where he had won two Student Academy Awards for animated film, decided to stay. Meanwhile, after spinning off a joint venture called Droid Works, George Lucas started shopping around Pixar with hopes of a second spinoff.
Pixar caught the interest of several companies, including EDS, then a division of General Motors, Philips N.V., and computer whiz-kid Steve Jobs, cofounder and chairman of Apple Computer Inc. Unable to convince Apple's board of directors to invest in or purchase the fledgling graphics company, Jobs reluctantly abandoned his hopes for Pixar. Yet circumstances changed drastically for Jobs in 1985. Stripped of his responsibilities and deposed from his Apple kingdom (at about the same time the first Pixar computer went on the market for $105,000), Jobs sold the majority of his Apple stock and started over.
Plunging $12 million into a new computer enterprise named NeXT Inc., specializing in personal computers for colleges and universities, Jobs approached Lucas in 1986 and paid $10 million for the San Rafael-based Pixar and created an independent company. Though Catmull, Lasseter, and crew regarded Jobs as kin in their quest for high-tech fun and games given his laidback reputation and status as a computer wonder boy--the new boss instructed them to put aside their dreams of animation and film and to instead concentrate on technical graphics they could sell.
1986-1991: Highs and Lows “ If I knew in 1986 how much it was going to cost to keep Pixar going, I doubt if I would've bought the company! 'The problem was, for many years the cost of the computers required to make animation we could sell was tremendously high. ” Luckily, Pixar's crew came up with several software innovations, which they used to create a myriad of products. In 1986 came the first of many Oscar nominations from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for a short animated film called Luxo, Jr.
Next came Red's Dream in 1987, then the development of RenderMan, for which the company applied for and received a patent. A revolutionary graphics program that allowed computer artists to add color and create texture to onscreen 3D objects, RenderMan produced stunningly realistic photo images almost indistinguishable from actual photographs. RenderMan's brand of images paid off when Tin Toy, written and directed by Lasseter as the first computer-generated animation, won an Academy Award as Best Animated Short Film in 1988.
As CEO of Pixar, Jobs expanded the company's leading edge graphics and animation capabilities by joining forces in July 1989 with the San Francisco-based Colossal Pictures, a live action, animation, and special effects studio, for collaboration purposes and to broker Pixar for television commercials and promotional films. With Colossal's background and experience in broadcast media and Pixar's unique computer capabilities, the partnership was poised for tremendous success.
By 1990 when more than a dozen RenderMan products were introduced, RenderMan licensing fees finally began to pay off. Not only were many hardware and software packagers incorporating the graphics program into their products, but RenderMan was endorsed by such industry heavyweights as Digital Equipment, IBM, Intel Corporation, and Sun Microsystems. In addition, Pixar created two commercials in its association with Colossal.
The second commercial, for Life Savers 'Holes' bite-size candies (which took 12 weeks to produce using RenderMan's software), aired in March and was a hit with audiences. In April 1990 Pixar signed a letter of intent to sell its valuable yet stagnating hardware operations, including all proprietary hardware technology and imaging software, to Vicom Systems of Fremont, California. The move, which included the transfer of 18 of Pixar's 100 employees, was finalized several weeks later and allowed Pixar to devote the company's full energy to further development of its rendering capabilities.
Before the end of the year, Pixar moved from San Rafael to new $15 million digs in the Point Richmond Tech Center of Richmond, California, and reached revenues of just under $3.4 million, though still not reporting a profit. While Jobs's other company, NeXT Inc., seemed to prosper and was expected to reach $100 million in computer sales, Pixar still struggled to make ends meet in 1991. In February, 30 employees were laid off, including President Charles Kolstad.
Jobs, sometimes criticized as a mercurial spinmeister with too little substance to back up his visions and words, was brought to task in the media for the shortcomings of both companies. Yet salvation came to Pixar in the name of Toy Story, the first full-length computer-animated feature film, as a collaboration between Pixar and Lasseter's old stomping grounds, Walt Disney Studios. Signing a contract to produce quality 'digital entertainment,' Pixar was responsible for the content and animation of three full-length films; Disney provided the funding for production and promotional costs, owning the marketing and licensing fees of the films and their characters.
Though Disney retained the lion's share of revenue and profit, Pixar negotiated for a slice of the gross revenues from the box office and subsequent video sales. At this juncture, neither Disney nor Pixar knew the potential of their alliance--one that proved successful beyond their wildest expectations. 1992-95: Magic & Mastery In 1992, the joint project between Pixar and Disney, called CAPS (computer animated production system) was another stellar development, winning Pixar's second Academy Award (shared with Disney).
The following year, Jobs's NeXT Inc., like Pixar before it, was forced to lay off workers and sell its hardware division to concentrate on software development and applications. Yet 1993 was a banner year for Pixar, with RenderMan winning the company's third Academy Award and a Gold Clio (for advertising excellence) for the funky animated Listerine 'Arrows' commercial. The next year, Pixar won its second Gold Clio for the Lifesavers 'Conga' commercial, a colorful romp with a contagious beat.
Despite such heavy accolades from critics and peers, Pixar still had not managed a profit since its spinoff in 1986, and reported a loss of $2.4 million on revenue of $5.6 million for 1994. The following year, in 1995, Pixar was wrapping up its work on Toy Story and everyone was anxious for the finished result to hit theaters in November. Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, and Annie Potts had signed on to voice major characters, and Randy Newman was composing the film's musical score.
By the end of the third quarter with more than 100,000 copies of RenderMan sold and a huge licensing deal with Bill Gates and Microsoft, Pixar announced its first-ever profit of $3.1 million on revenues of $10.6 million. For Pixar, 1995 was a string of accelerating successes: first came Toy Story's pre-Thanksgiving release, grossing over $40 million its first weekend, with rave reviews from critics and families alike.
Leading box office receipts, both Disney and Pixar hoped Toy Story could best Pochahontas's $140 million take earlier in the year. Next came Pixar's IPO of 6.9 million shares in November on the NASDAQ; the market closed at $22 per share, up from its initial offering of $12 to $14 each, giving Pixar a market value of some $800 million. Jobs, who since his purchase of Pixar for $10 million had sunk an additional $50 million into the enterprise, recouped a handsome paper profit of more than $600 million for his 80 percent stake (the shares eventually hit a high of $45.
50 on November 30th). Another boon came when Toy Story garnered several award nominations, including Randy Newman's score for two Golden Globes and an Oscar; an Oscar for Catmull and Thomas Porter, director of effects animation or digital scanning technology; and an additional Special Achievement Oscar for Lasseter's writing, direction, and technical wizardry for Toy Story. 1996-99: Lightning Strikes! After the release of Toy Story while part of Pixar's crew worked on a CD-ROM game of the animated film, others were busy working on several Coca-Cola commercials for the Creative Arts Agency, hired by Michael Ovitz.
Pixar was also immersed in its next Disney film, A Bug's Life, which was scheduled for release in two years. By February 1996, Toy Story had grossed over $177 million at the box office and in March Lasseter attended the Academy Awards to receive his Oscar. He brought along Woody and Buzz Lightyear, who were part of several sketches and fodder for running gags during the live telecast. Pixar completed the year with a huge leap in revenues, up to $38.
2 million (from 1995's $12.1 million), extraordinary net income of $25.3 million, and stock prices hitting a high of $49 per share in the fourth quarter. Though it had been said by Bob Bennett of Autodesk, Inc., a client and competitor of Pixar, that 'Pixar is the best in the world at what it does,' continued advances in computer and graphics technology brought considerable competition. Everyone it seemed--from Digital Domain and Industrial Light & Magic to Microsoft and Silicon Graphics--was trying their hand at graphics software development.
After the stellar success of Toy Story, all the major motion picture studios were creating computerized animation, including DreamWorks SKG, Turner Broadcasting, Warner Bros., and even Disney. Other developments surrounded Jobs, as Apple stumbled horribly and the company came close to financial ruin. Still attached to the company he had cofounded and brought to enormous success, Jobs came to its rescue in 1997 shortly after Apple bought his NeXT Inc.
Few doubted Jobs's ability to juggle both Pixar and Apple, and they were right. Not only did Jobs bring Apple back to the forefront of the computer industry with the flashy iMac, but Pixar went on to rule the box office with A Bug's Life. During the magic 'holiday' window of October, November, and December 1997, A Bug's Life was up against four animated films, including another insect-related story by Dreamworks SKG, entitled Antz.
Dreamworks had also released The Prince of Egypt and Nickelodeon brought The Rugrats Movie to the big screen as well. Yet Pixar beat the pack and went on to ring up over $360 million in worldwide box office receipts, even topping Toy Story. Once again Pixar was nominated for and won big at the Academy Awards: two separate awards for Scientific and Technical Achievement (for the Marionette 3D Animation System, and for digital painting), as well as another for Best Animated Short Film (Geri's Game).
Pixar also finally received a sizeable financial boost in 1997, as revenues and net income reached $34.7 million and $22.1 million, respectively. The box office and critical triumphs of both Toy Story and A Bug's Life also brought a new deal with Disney to produce an additional five pictures within the next ten years, with both companies as equal partners. The agreement eclipsed the previous deal; the former's remaining two films became the first two of the new five-picture negotiation.
Lastly, Pixar would sell Disney up to five percent of its common stock at $15 per share. In early 1999 A Bug's Life was released on video and DVD simultaneously and Pixar's top guns worked feverishly on the sequel to Toy Story, slated for release in November. The sequel was a gamble, since only one animated feature film had ever spawned a theater-released follow-up, Disney's The Rescuers Down Under.
Most sequels or prequels were released directly to video; Pixar was ready to buck the trend. Dollars from its venture with Disney continued to slowly trickle in and Pixar finished the year with $14.3 million in revenue and net earnings of $7.8 million. 1999 also brought more kudos for Pixar: David DiFrancesco won the company's ninth Academy Award (for Technical Achievement), Toy Story 2 opened in November to sweeping box office dominance (even higher receipts than Star Wars: The Phantom Menace's first few weeks of release the year before), and the company celebrated its fifth consecutive profitable year, with revenues of $121 million and earnings topping $50 million.
2000-2009: The New Century Pixar was as busy as ever in the 21st century: the company was preparing to move into its new 225,000-square-foot headquarters in Emeryville, California, due for completion in mid-2000 and were hard at work on its next full-length animated film in collaboration with Disney. The new feature was scheduled for release in 2001, under the working title of "Monsters, Inc." The company's fifth film was tentatively slated for release in 2002, was a top-secret project to be directed by Andrew Stanton, who had worked on both Toy Story and A Bug's Life.
Despite a slow, financially difficult beginning, Pixar Animation Studios had landed on the fast track and was known throughout the world. With its technological breakthroughs and brilliantly crafted animated films, the sky was the limit in the coming decade and beyond. As stated in its 1996 annual report, Pixar succeeded because it was well aware of the pitfalls of filmmaking: “ Though Pixar is the pioneer of computer animation, the essence of our business is to create compelling stories and memorable characters.
It is chiseled in stone at our studios that no amount of technology can turn a bad story into a good one. ” Monsters, Inc. was followed by Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Cars, Ratatouille, WALL•E, and Up, which cemented Pixar's reputation as one of the best-critically acclaimed movie studios in history. 2010-present: To Infinity and Beyond! On April 20, 2010, Pixar opened a new studio in the downtown area of Gastown, Vancouver, B.
C., named Pixar Canada. The studio is primarily creating projects featuring characters from Toy Story and Cars. The studio was shut down on October 8, 2013 to "refocus creative and business efforts and resources under one roof". Pixar released Toy Story 3 on June 18, 2010, which met with universal acclaim and box-office success. It made over $1.063B and is the highest grossing animated film of all time.
John Lasseter fueled speculation on Pixar's future sequels when he stated, "If we have a great story, we'll do a sequel". Cars 2, Pixar's first sequel not based on Toy Story, was released on June 24, 2011. Brave, Pixar's first fairy-tale, was released on June 15, 2012. Monsters University, a prequel to Monsters, Inc. was also announced on April 22, 2010, for release on June 21, 2013. Three original films were announced in early 2012: Inside Out, set to be released on June 19, 2015, The Good Dinosaur, to be released on November 25, 2015, and an untitled Día de los Muertos film.
The Day of the Dead film was reported by Comingsoon.net to be released in 2016. A sequel to Finding Nemo, titled Finding Dory, was announced in April 2013, for release in 2016. According to Disney Vault, at the Hero Complex Film Festival 2012, Stanton says he feels that Pixar will continue to make more sequels, which he said: "I’m sure you’ll see some other sequels of things as they grow because now we are not so blinded.
It’s the originals that keep us really going and it’s the sequels that are like comfort food, and I think it’s the same way for the audience." According to Variety, Derek Connolly and Teddy Newton are working on an untitled project. Details are, at this stage, very few, but Connolly tells the trade that he's been instructed to write as though he's telling a story for adults rather than kids, specifically.
It was also announced that Mark Andrews is developing another film. It was also announced that 3 films will be released from 2017 to 2018. It is currently unknown what the films are. On March 18, 2014 during Disney's annual shareholder meeting, Disney CEO Bob Iger announced that Pixar had begun pre-production on The Incredibles 2 with The Incredibles director Brad Bird working on the story.
. Iger also announced at the time that development had begun on a third Cars film. Technology Since its incorporation, Pixar has been responsible for many important breakthroughs in the application of computer graphics (CG) for filmmaking. Consequently, the company has attracted some of the world's finest talent in this area. Pixar's technical and creative teams have collaborated since 1986 to develop a wealth of production software used in-house to create its movies and further the state of the art in CG movie making.
This proprietary technology allows the production of animated images of a quality, richness and vibrancy that are unique in the industry, and above all, allows the director to precisely control the end results in a way that is exactly right for the story. Pixar continues to invest heavily in its software systems and believes that further advancements will lead to additional productivity and quality improvements in the making of its computer animated films.
Pixar also has a long standing tradition of sharing its advances within the broader CG community, through technical papers, technology partnerships, and most notably through its publicly available RenderMan product for the highest-quality, photo-realistic images currently available. RenderMan remains the standard in CG film visual effects and feature animation and has been honored with an Academy Award for technical achievement.
In 2001, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences' Board of Governors® honored Ed Catmull, president of Pixar and Disney Animation Studios, Loren Carpenter, senior scientist, and Rob Cook, vice president of software engineering, with an Academy Award of Merit (Oscar®) "for significant advancements to the field of motion picture rendering as exemplified in Pixar's RenderMan." In 2002, the Producer's Guild of America honored Pixar with the Guild's inaugural Vanguard Award, which recognizes outstanding achievement in new media and technology.
Creative Team Pixar's creative department is led by Chief Creative Officer John Lasseter, an Academy Award®-winning director and animator. Under the guidance of Lasseter, Pixar has built a creative team that includes a department of highly skilled animators, a story department and an art department. This team is responsible for creating, writing and animating all of Pixar's films. Pixar strives to hire animators who have superior acting ability - those able to bring characters and inanimate objects to life, as though they have their own thought processes.
In order to attract and retain quality animators, the company founded Pixar University, which conducts three-month long courses for new and existing animators. Pixar also has a complete production team that gives the company the capability to control all elements of production of its films. Pixar has successfully expanded the production team so projects may be worked on simultaneously. Disney Initially, when Pixar was a high-end computer hardware company whose core product was the Pixar Image Computer, a system primarily sold to government agencies and the medical community.
One of the buyers of Pixar Image Computers was Disney Studios, which was using the device as part of their secretive CAPS project, using the machine and custom software to migrate the laborious ink and paint part of the 2-D animation process to a more automated and thus efficient method. Pixar continued its relationship with Walt Disney Feature Animation, a studio whose corporate parent would ultimately become its most important partner.
Relationship Pixar and Disney had disagreements after the production of Toy Story 2. Originally intended as a straight-to-video release (and thus not part of Pixar's three-picture deal), the film was eventually upgraded to a theatrical release during production. Pixar demanded that the film then be counted toward the three-picture agreement, but Disney refused. Pixar's first five feature films have collectively grossed more than $2.
5 billion, equivalent to the highest per-film average gross in the industry. Though profitable for both, Pixar later complained that the arrangement was not equitable. Pixar was responsible for creation and production, while Disney handled marketing and distribution. Profits and production costs were split 50-50, but Disney exclusively owned all story and sequel rights and also collected a distribution fee.
The lack of story and sequel rights was perhaps the most onerous aspect to Pixar and set the stage for a contentious relationship. The two companies attempted to reach a new agreement in early 2004. The new deal would be only for distribution, as Pixar intended to control production and own the resulting film properties themselves. The company also wanted to finance their films on their own and collect 100 percent of the profits, paying Disney only the 10 to 15 percent distribution fee.
More importantly, as part of any distribution agreement with Disney, Pixar demanded control over films already in production under their old agreement, including The Incredibles and Cars. Disney considered these conditions unacceptable, but Pixar would not concede. Disagreements between Steve Jobs and then Disney Chairman and CEO Michael Eisner made the negotiations more difficult than they otherwise might have been.
They broke down completely in mid-2004, with Jobs declaring that Pixar was actively seeking partners other than Disney. Pixar did not enter negotiations with other distributors. After a lengthy hiatus, negotiations between the two companies resumed following the departure of Eisner from Disney in September 2005. In preparation for potential fallout between Pixar and Disney, Jobs announced in late 2004 that Pixar would no longer release movies at the Disney-dictated November time frame, but during the more lucrative early summer months.
This would also allow Pixar to release DVDs for their major releases during the Christmas shopping season. An added benefit of delaying Cars was to extend the time frame remaining on the Pixar-Disney contract to see how things would play out between the two companies. Pending the Disney acquisition of Pixar, the two companies created a distribution deal for the intended 2007 release of Ratatouille, in case the acquisition fell through, to ensure that this one film would still be released through Disney's distribution channels.
(In contrast to the earlier Disney/Pixar deal Ratatouille was to remain a Pixar property and Disney would have received only a distribution fee.) The completion of Disney's Pixar acquisition, however, nullified this distribution arrangement Acquisition Disney announced on January 24, 2006 that it had agreed to buy Pixar for approximately $7.4 billion in an all-stock deal. Following Pixar shareholder approval, the acquisition was completed May 5, 2006.
The transaction catapulted Steve Jobs, who was the majority shareholder of Pixar with 50.1%, to Disney's largest individual shareholder with 7% and a new seat on its board of directors. Jobs' new Disney holdings exceed holdings belonging to ex-CEO Michael Eisner, the previous top shareholder, who still held 1.7%; and Disney Director Emeritus Roy E. Disney, who held almost 1% of the corporation's shares.
As part of the deal, Pixar co-founder John Lasseter, by then Executive Vice President, became Chief Creative Officer (reporting to President and CEO Robert Iger and consulting with Disney Director Roy Disney) of both Pixar and the Walt Disney Animation Studios, as well as the Principal Creative Adviser at Walt Disney Imagineering, which designs and builds the company's theme parks. Catmull retained his position as President of Pixar, while also becoming President of Walt Disney Animation Studios, reporting to Bob Iger and Dick Cook, chairman of Walt Disney Studio Entertainment.
Steve Jobs' position as Pixar's Chairman and Chief Executive Officer was also removed, and instead he took a place on the Disney board of directors. Lasseter and Catmull's oversight of both the Disney and Pixar studios did not mean that the two studios were merging, however. In fact, additional conditions were laid out as part of the deal to ensure that Pixar remained a separate entity, a concern that analysts had expressed about the Disney deal.
 Some of those conditions were that Pixar HR policies would remain intact, including the lack of employment contracts. Also, the Pixar name was guaranteed to continue, and the studio would remain in its current Emeryville, California location with the "Pixar" sign. Finally, branding of films made post-merger would be "Disney•Pixar" (beginning with Cars). Filmography Feature films On November 22, 1995, Pixar Animation Studios forever impacted the future of filmmaking, storytelling and the medium of animation with the release of its first feature film, Disney·Pixar's Toy Story.
Released nine years after the founding of Pixar, Toy Story exhibited years of creative and technical achievements from a small group of passionate computer scientists and animators, led by present day President Ed Catmull and Chief Creative Officer John Lasseter. The film, marking the birth of the new medium of computer animation, went on to become the highest grossing film of 1995 with $362 million in worldwide box office receipts.
Lasseter, director of Toy Story, was honored with a Special Achievement Academy Award® for his "inspired leadership of the Pixar Toy Story team resulting in the first feature-length computer animated film." Since Toy Story's release in 1995, Pixar Animation Studios, in partnership with Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, has also created and produced A Bug's Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), Monsters, Inc.
(2001), Finding Nemo (2003), The Incredibles (2004), Cars (2006), Ratatouille (2007), WALL•E (2008), Up (2009), Toy Story 3 (2010), Cars 2 (2011), Brave (2012), Monsters University (2013), Inside Out (2015), The Good Dinosaur (2015), Finding Dory (2016), Cars 3 (2017) and Coco (2017)The feature films have resulted in an unprecedented streak of both critical and box office successes, and combined to gross more than $6 billion at the worldwide box office.
The first 10 feature films, through Up, have garnered 35 Academy Award® nominations, nine Oscars®, six Golden Globes® and numerous other accolades. Pixar's upcoming films include The Incredibles 2 (2018), and Toy Story 4 (2019). From toys, bugs, monsters, fish, superheroes, and cars to rats, robots, grumpy old men, fearless young girls, human emotions, and dinosaurs, Pixar's talented creative and technical teams have given audiences of all ages some of the most beloved characters in film.
Pairing these unique, relatable characters with compelling stories and immersive, believable worlds, Pixar continually delivers on its promise to truly entertain audiences all over the world. Shorts Pixar Animation Studios has long believed in making short films. In 1986, Pixar's first-ever short, Luxo, Jr., launched a new direction in animated filmmaking, using three-dimensional computer animation to tell a story.
Since then, nearly every feature film that Pixar has released has included a short beforehand, bringing back a tradition that was once an expected pleasure for filmgoers. Pixar's shorts have helped foster and develop technologies and talent at the studio, but they are mostly made for one simple reason: love of the art form. From Tin Toy's (1989) toy-tormenting baby to Partly Cloudy's (2009) adorable storks, Pixar's shorts have delighted audiences and earned critical praise, garnering nine Academy Award® nominations and three Best Animated Short Film Academy Awards®.
Day & Night, the studio's most recent short, debuted in theaters with Toy Story 3. Television Pixar has also released several TV shows, including: Products RenderMan RenderMan is the render software Pixar created in 1988, and now uses to help produce its CGI films. Since it's creation, RenderMan has become the industry-standard and has since been used to render many films including The Abyss, Terminator II and Jurassic Park.
Marionette Marionette is the animation software developed and used in-house by Pixar Animation Studios in the animation of their movies and shorts. Marionette is not available for sale and is only used by Pixar. As a result little is known outside of Pixar about the detailed workings of this software. Pixar claims that Marionette is designed to be intuitive and familiar to animators who have traditional cel animation experience.
Pixar chooses to use a proprietary system in lieu of the commercial products available and used by other companies because it can edit the software code to meet their needs. Exhibitions Since December 2005, Pixar has held exhibitions celebrating the art and artists of Pixar, over their first twenty years in animation. Pixar: 20 Years of Animation Pixar held one such exhibition, from April to June 2010, at Science Centre Singapore, in Jurong East, Singapore.
It was their first time holding an exhibition in Singapore. The exhibition highlights consist of work-in-progress sketches from various Pixar productions, clay sculptures of their characters, and an autostereoscopic short showcasing a 3D version of the exhibition pieces which is projected through 4 projectors. Another highlight is the Zoetrope, where visitors of the exhibition are shown figurines of Toy Story characters "animated" in real-life through the zoetrope.
Pixar: 25 Years of Animation Pixar celebrated 25 years of animation in 2011, the year when Cars 2 was released. Pixar celebrated its 20th anniversary with the first Cars. The Pixar: 25 Years of Animation exhibition was held at the Oakland Museum of California from July 2010 until January 2011. The exhibition was also held at the Hong Kong Heritage Museum in Shatin from March to July 2011. Pixar: 25 Years of Animation includes all of the artwork from Pixar: 20 Years of Animation, plus art from Ratatouille, WALL-E, Up, and Toy Story 3.
The Hong Kong exhibition will feature some never-before-seen artwork and animations that are exclusive to Hong Kong. The Science Behind Pixar The Science Behind Pixar is a travelling exhibition developed by the Museum of Science in Boston in collaboration with Pixar. The exhibition demonstrates the production pipeline at Pixar in the form of the filmmaking process. It started its tour in June 2015 at the Museum of Science and is expected to be touring for ten years to other museums around the United States with limited tour availability beginning in 2021.
Pixar: 30 Years of Animation Pixar celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2016, the year when they released Finding Dory. To celebrate, they have upgraded their art exhibition to feature art from Cars 2, Brave, Monsters University, Inside Out, The Good Dinosaur and Finding Dory. Pixar: 30 Years of Animation was held at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tokyo, Japan from March 5 to May 29, 2016 and at Nagasaki Prefectural Art Museum in Nagasaki from July 27 to September 8.
 External links References ↑ Pixar Canada shuts its doors in Vancouver ↑ New Art From Pixar's Upcoming Films! ↑ Pixar: Andrew Stanton Open To ‘Finding Nemo 2′ + ‘Finding Nemo 3D’ Trailer ↑ Pixar: Andrew Stanton Is Now Working on ‘Finding Nemo 2′ ↑ Connolly: College partnership leads to 'Guaranteed' success ↑ Mark Andrews Developing New Pixar Feature Film ↑ Disney and Pixar Set 8 Untitled Animated Projects from 2016 – 2018 ↑ Disney and Pixar Animation Releases Dated Through 2018 ↑ 9.
09.1Disney Plans Third ‘Cars,’ ‘The Incredibles 2′ ↑ Cars, Incredibles Animated Sequels ↑ Pixar: 30 Years of Animation at Pixar's Official Website