Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill (therapeutic), treatment of a batch of animals when at least one is diagnosed as ill (metaphylaxis, similar to the way bacterial meningitis is treated in children), and preventative treatment (prophylaxis) against disease. The use of subtherapeutic doses in animal feed and/or water to promote growth and improve feed efficiency was eliminated effective January 1, 2017, as a result of new FDA Veterinary Feed Directive.
 This practice has been banned in Europe since 2006. This article looks at antibiotic use for growth promotion and the situation in the United States and does not cover therapy, prophylaxis or metaphylaxis in Europe. Antimicrobials (including antibiotics and antifungals) and other drugs can only be used by veterinarians and livestock owners in the U.S. for treatment, control, or prevention of diseases.
 Some other countries outside Europe can use antimicrobials to increase the growth rates of livestock, poultry, and other farmed animals, although these pharmaceuticals do not always have to be administered by a veterinarian. There are also global concerns over the use of antibiotics for growth promotion or therapy purposes because of the potential for some drugs to enter the human food chain despite rigorous withdrawal measures and testing to prevent antibiotic residues in food, increasing antibiotic resistance in animals, a potential although largely unproven link to antibiotic-resistant infections in humans, and what some consider antibiotic misuse.
Other drugs may be used only under strict limits, and some organizations and authorities seek to further restrict the use of some or all drugs in animals. Other authorities, such as the World Organization for Animal Health, say that "Without antibiotics there would be supply problems of animal protein for the human population". However, in 2013 the CDC finalized and released a report detailing antibiotic resistance and classified the top 18 resistant bacterium as either being urgent, serious or concerning threats (CDC).
Of those organisms, three (CDIFF, CRE and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) have been classified as urgent threats and require more monitoring and prevention (CDC). In the US alone, more than 2 million people are diagnosed with antibiotic resistant infections and over 23,000 die per year due to resistant infections (CDC). Given the concerns about antibiotic use for feed conversion, research into alternatives is ongoing.
History of the practice In 1910 in the United States, a meat shortage resulted in protests and boycotts. After this and other shortages, the public demanded government research into stabilization of food supplies. Since the 1900s, livestock production on United States farms has had to rear larger quantities of animals over a short period of time to meet new consumer demands. Factory farming or the use of high intensity feedlots originated in the late 19th century when advances in technology and science allowed for mass production of livestock.
Global agriculture production doubled four times within 1820 and 1975, feeding one billion in 1800 and up to 6.5 billion in 2002. Along with the new large animal densities came the threat of disease, therefore requiring a greater disease control of these animals. In 1950, a group of United States scientists found that adding antibiotics to animal feed increases the growth rate of livestock.American Cyanamid published research establishing the practice.
 By 2001 this practice had grown so much that a report by the Union of Concerned Scientists found that nearly 90% of the total use of antimicrobials in the United States was for non-therapeutic purposes in agricultural production. Antibiotics have an appropriate place in the humane care of illness in livestock, when they reduce the suffering of a sick animal or control the spread of the illness to nearby animals.
 Thus, ideas that they should never be used in livestock husbandry are misguided. Instead, the goal is to prevent the allowance of preventive use from being distorted into routine use, constituting overuse. Drugs and growth stimulation Certain antibiotics, when given in low, sub-therapeutic doses, are known to improve feed conversion efficiency (more output, such as muscle or milk, for a given amount of feed) and/or may promote greater growth, most likely by affecting gut flora.
 However, any antibiotics deemed medically important to humans by the CDC are illegal to use as growth promoters in the U.S. Only drugs that have no association with human medicine – and therefore no risk to humans – are allowed to be used for this purpose. It is also important to note that some drugs listed below are ionophores, which are not antibiotics and do not pose any potential risk to human health.
Antibiotic Growth Promoters used in Livestock Production drug class effect Bambermycin increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in chickens, beef cattle, swine, and turkeys. Lasalocid Ionophore increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in beef cattle. Monensin Ionophore increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in beef cattle and sheep; promotes proficient milk production in dairy cows.
 Salinomycin Ionophore increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain. Virginiamycin peptide increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in chickens, swine, turkeys, and beef cattle. Bacitracin peptide increase weight gain and feed conversion ratio in chickens, turkeys, beef cattle, and swine; promotes egg production in chickens. Carbadox increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in swine.
 Laidlomycin increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in beef cattle. Lincomycin increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in chickens and swine. – Illegal for this use in the U.S. Neomycin/ oxytetracyclinee increase weight gain and feed conversion ratio in chickens, turkeys, swine, and beef cattle. – Illegal for this use in the U.S. Penicillin increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in chickens, turkeys, and swine.
 – Illegal for this use in the U.S. Roxarsone increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in chickens and turkeys. Tylosin increase feed conversion ratio and weight gain in chickens and swine. – Illegal for this use in the U.S. Use in different livestock In swine production Main article: Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine The use of antibiotics to increase the growth of pigs is the most studied in livestock.
This use for growth rather than disease prevention is referred to as subtherapeutic antibiotic use. Studies have shown that administering low doses of antibiotics in livestock feed improves growth rate, reduces mortality and morbidity, and improves reproductive performance. It is estimated that over one-half of the antibiotics produced and sold in the United States is used as a feed additive. Although it is still not completely understood why and how antibiotics increase the growth rate of pigs, possibilities include metabolic effects, disease control effects, and nutritional effects.
 While subtherapeutic use has many benefits for raising swine, there is growing concern that this practice leads to increased antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria are resistant to one or more microbial agents that are usually used to treat infection. There are three stages in the possible emergence and continuation of antibiotic resistance: genetic change, antibiotic selection, and spread of antibiotic resistance.
 In production of other livestock Organic beef comes from cattle who have not been fed antibiotics. Regulatory context The use of drugs in food animals is regulated in nearly all countries. Historically, this has been to prevent alteration or contamination of meat, milk, eggs and other products with toxins that are harmful to humans. Treating a sick animal with drugs may lead to some of those drugs remaining in the animal when it is slaughtered or milked.
Scientific experiments provide data that shows how long a drug is present in the body of an animal and what the animal's body does to the drug. Of particular concern are drugs that may be passed into milk or eggs. By the use of 'drug withdrawal periods' before slaughter or the use of milk or eggs from treated animals, veterinarians and animal owners ensure that the meat, milk and eggs is free of contamination.
These restrictions include not only poisons or drugs (such as penicillin) which may result in allergic reactions but also contaminants which may cause cancer. It is illegal in the US to administer drugs or feed substances to animals if they have been shown to cause cancer. One of the main restrictions is the amount that is administered to animals in the industry. These drugs should be administered to healthy livestock at a low concentration of 200 g per ton of feed.
The amount distributed is also altered throughout the lifespan of livestock in order to meet specific growth needs. Legality of the use of specific drugs in animal medicine varies according to location. Just as in human medicine, some drugs are available over the counter and others are restricted to use only on the prescription of a veterinary physician. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires specific labels on all drugs, giving directions on the use of the drug.
For animals, this includes the species, dose, reason for giving the drug (indication) and the required withdrawal period, if any. Federal law requires laypersons to use drugs only in the manner listed. Veterinarians who have examined an animal or a herd of animals may issue a replacement label, giving new directions, based on their medical knowledge, unless it is a feed-grade antibiotic (is administered through the feed or water) in which case the veterinarian cannot issue directions different than the label.
 It is illegal in the US for any layperson to administer any drug to a food animal in a way not specific to the drug label. Over-the-counter drugs which may be used by laypersons include anti-parasite drugs (including fly sprays) and antimicrobials. These drugs can be applied as sprays, creams, injections, oral pills or fluids, or as a feed additive, depending on the drug and the label. In December 2013, the FDA updated its regulations to try to begin reducing use of antibiotics for growth enhancement.
 Significant lobbying comes from all directions, from those against tighter regulation to those who complain it doesn't go far enough. Currently few policies, regulations and laws exist that promote limitation of antibiotic use on factory farms. In addition, few policies are being created that call for this decrease in antibiotic use. However, numerous state senators and members of congress showed support for the Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Act of 2015 (PARA) and the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act of 2013 (PAMTA).
These acts proposed amendments be made to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act which would limit and preserve the use of antibiotics for medically necessary situations. Both of these bills died in Congress in 2015. In 2015, the FDA approved a new Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD), which is an updated rule that give instructions to pharmaceutical companies, veterinarians, and producers about how to administer necessary drugs through the animal's feed and water.
This new rule followed through on the FDA's commitment to phase out the use of antibiotics for growth promotion and increased feed conversion. It is now illegal to use any antimicrobial that is medically important to humans for anything other than treatment, control, and prevention of disease. Furthermore, even then, producers now have to have a licensed veterinarian sign a legal form - much like a prescription - for producers to purchase, store, or administer these products.
This document gives specific instructions about the animals to be fed, the dates when they will be fed, and the concentration. Violating a VFD is now a violation of federal law. This is a major step toward reducing antibiotic resistance in both animals and humans. The new VFD took effect on January 1, 2017. Administering drugs Drugs can be administered to animals in a variety of means, just as with humans.
Among these are topical (on the skin), by injection (including intravenous, subcutaneous, subcutaneous implants, intramuscular and intraperitoneal), and orally. Oral drugs can be in pill or liquid form, or can be given by mixing with feed or drinking water. The appropriate route for treatment depends on the specific case and can vary by: illness, severity of illness, selected drug, age or condition of the animal, species of the animal, type of housing and other factors.
 For animals that are not regularly fed a concentrated feed or which can be handled repeatedly, a slow-release injection might be the most appropriate. Some drugs are not available or appropriate in this form and should be delivered orally. For animals that are fed regularly (rather than grazing freely) or that can not be easily handled, the most appropriate means of administering the drug may be to include the drug in feed or water.
This eliminates the stress of daily (or more frequent) handling of animals, which can make the animals more ill. Poultry are most commonly medicated in this fashion, as they are easily stressed to the point of dying. Administering the drug by feed also prevents injection wounds in animals. The timely administration of drugs is key to preventing animal suffering and economic loss to the farmer.
Animals which are ill can infect other animals, and may become so ill that they can not be sold. A variety of techniques are used to monitor animals for illness so that they can be treated appropriately. Stress reduction, adequate nutrition, shelter, and quarantine of incoming stock are all important factors to promote growth and reduce illness and the need for active treatment. The age and status of an animal is also important in determining correct treatment – a young animal or pregnant animal is at greater risk and are treated more aggressively than an older animal.
Specifically in calves, the period in which they begin to separate from their mothers generates stress and makes them more susceptible to catching an infection like pneumonia. Antibiotics are commonly administered in the calves' feed during this time to fight the possibility of stress-induced infections. Feed antibiotics are also used to prevent illnesses in calves caused by liver abscesses that develop during their last stages of growth.
 Use by country European Union The European Union (EU) in 1999 implemented an antibiotic resistance monitoring program and phase out plan for all antibiotic use by 2006. Although the European Union banned the use of antibiotics as growth agents from 2006, its use has not changed much until recently. In Germany, 1,734 tons of antimicrobial agents were used for animals in 2011 compared with 800 tons for humans.
On the other hand, Sweden banned their use in 1986 and Denmark started cutting down drastically in 1994, so that its use is now 60% less. In the Netherlands, the use of antibiotics to treat diseases increased after the ban on its use for growth purposes in 2006. In 2011, the EU voted to ban the prophylactic use of antibiotics, alarmed at signs that the overuse of antibiotics is blunting their use for humans.
 United States In 2011, a total of 13.6 million kilograms of antimicrobials were sold for use in food-producing animals in the United States, which represents 80% of all antibiotics sold or distributed in the United States. Of the antibiotics given to animals from 2009 through 2013, just above 60% distributed for food animal use are "medically-important" drugs, that are also used in humans.
 The rest are drug classes like ionophores which are not used in human medicine. Due to concerns about the overuse of antibiotics in food-producing animals, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration has implemented new industry guidelines that will restrict the use of medically-important drugs to uses "that are considered necessary for assuring animal health" and will require veterinary oversight.
 The food animal and veterinary pharmaceutical industries will need to phase out medically important antimicrobial use by January 1, 2017. Eighty percent of antibiotics sold in the United States are used on livestock. The majority of these antibiotics are given to animals that are otherwise healthy. Rather, it is normal practice to mix antibiotics with fodder to promote healthier living conditions and to encourage animal growth.
 The use of antibiotics in animals is to a large degree involved in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotics are used in food with the intention of not only preventing, controlling, and treating diseases, but also to promote growth. Antibiotic use in animals can be classified into therapeutic, prophylactic, metaphylactic, and growth promotion uses of antibiotics.
 All four patterns select for bacterial resistance, since antibiotic resistance is a natural evolutionary process, but the non-therapeutic uses expose larger number of animals, and therefore of bacteria, for more extended periods, and at lower doses. They therefore greatly increase the cross-section for the evolution of resistance. The origins of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAFO: concentrated animal feeding operations)  Since the last third of the 20th century, antibiotics have been used extensively in animal husbandry.
In 2013, 80% of antibiotics used in the US were used in animals and only 20% in humans; in 1997 half were used in humans and half in animals. Some antibiotics are not used and not considered significant for use in humans, because they either lack efficacy or purpose in humans, such as ionophores in ruminants, or because the drug has gone out of use in humans. Others are used in both animals and humans, including penicillin and some forms of tetracycline.
 Historically, regulation of antibiotic use in food animals has been limited to limiting drug residues in meat, egg, and milk products, rather than by direct concern over the development of antibiotic resistance. This mirrors the primary concerns in human medicine, where, in general, researchers and doctors were more concerned about effective but non-toxic doses of drugs rather than antibiotic resistance.
In 2001, the Union of Concerned Scientists estimated that greater than 70% of the antibiotics used in the U.S. are given to food animals (for example, chickens, pigs, and cattle), in the absence of disease. The amounts given are termed "sub-therapeutic", i.e., insufficient to combat disease. Despite no diagnosis of disease, the administration of these drugs (most of which are not significant to human medicine) results in decreased mortality and morbidity and increased growth in the animals so treated.
It is theorized that sub-therapeutic dosages kills some, but not all, of the bacterial organisms in the animal – likely leaving those that are naturally antibiotic-resistant. Studies have shown, however, that, in essence, the overall population levels of bacteria are unchanged; only the mix of bacteria is affected. The actual mechanism by which sub-therapeutic antibiotic feed additives serve as growth promoters is thus unclear.
Some people have speculated that animals and fowl may have sub-clinical infections, which would be cured by low levels of antibiotics in feed, thereby allowing the creatures to thrive. No convincing evidence has been advanced for this theory, and the bacterial load in an animal is essentially unchanged by use of antibiotic feed additives. The mechanism of growth promotion is therefore probably something other than "killing off the bad bugs".
Antibiotics are used in U.S. animal feed to promote animal productivity. In particular, poultry feed and drinking water is a common route of administration of drugs, because of higher overall costs when drugs are administered by handling animals individually. In research studies, occasional animal-to-human spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms has been demonstrated. Resistant bacteria can be transmitted from animals to humans in three ways: by consuming animal products (milk, meat, eggs, etc.
), from close or direct contact with animals or other humans, or through the environment. In the first pathway, food preservation methods can help eliminate, decrease, or prevent the growth of bacteria in some food classes. Evidence for the transfer of macrolide-resistant microorganisms from animals to humans has been scant, and most evidence shows that pathogens of concern in human populations originated in humans and are maintained there, with rare cases of transference to humans.
 China China produces and consumes the most antibiotics of all countries. Antibiotic use has been measured by checking the water near factory farms in China. Measurements have also been taken from animal dung. It was calculated that 38.5 million kg (or 84.9 million lbs) of antibiotics were used in China's swine and poultry production in 2012. India In 2012 India manufactured about a third of the total amount of antibiotics in the world.
 Brazil Brazil is the world's largest exporter of beef and the government regulates antibiotic use in the cattle production industry. Concerns about antibiotic resistance More recently, there has been increased concern about the use of anti-microbials in animals (including pets, livestock, and companion animals) contributing to the rise in antibiotic resistant infections in humans. The use of antimicrobials has been linked to the rise of resistance in every drug and species where it has been studied, including humans and livestock.
However, the role of antibiotic use in food animals – in contrast to the use of antibiotics in humans – in the rise of resistant infections in humans is in dispute. The use of antimicrobials in various forms is widespread throughout animal industry, and is presented as key to preventing animal suffering and economic loss. It is linked by some activist groups to animal welfare concern, large scale commercial agriculture, international food trade, agricultural protectionist laws, environmental protection (including climate change) and other topics, which make the aims of some groups on both sides of the debate difficult to untangle.
Around 70% of all antibiotics administered are used for livestock. Most of the drugs that are given to livestock are misused and incorporated into their diets daily for the purpose of weight gain or to treat illnesses. The overuse of the antibiotic in livestock is harmful to humans because it creates an antibiotic resistant bacteria that can be transferred through several different ways such as: raw meats, consumption of meats, or it can also be airborne.
Waste from food-producing animals can also contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria and is sometimes stored in lagoons. This waste is often sprayed as fertilizer and can thus contaminate crops and water with the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic resistance is harmful to humans because it makes them resistant to certain types of drugs for different diseases, and makes it harder for them to fight off infections.
 The World Health Organization has published a list of Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human Medicine with the intent that it be used "as a reference to help formulate and prioritize risk assessment and risk management strategies for containing antimicrobial resistance due to human and non-human antimicrobial use." Positions of advocates for restricting antibiotic use The practice of using antibiotics for growth stimulation is problematic for these reasons: it is the largest use of antimicrobials worldwide subtherapeutic use of antibiotics results in bacterial resistance every important class of antibiotics are being used in this way, making every class less effective the bacteria being changed harm humans Donald Kennedy, former director of the United States Food and Drug Administration, has said "There's no question that routinely administering non-therapeutic doses of antibiotics to food animals contributes to antibiotic resistance.
"David Aaron Kessler, another former director of the FDA, said that "We have more than enough scientific evidence to justify curbing the rampant use of antibiotics for livestock, yet the food and drug industries are not only fighting proposed legislation to reduce these practices, they also oppose collecting the data." In 2013 the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a white paper discussing antibiotic resistance threats in the US and calling for "improved use of antibiotics" among other measures to contain the threat to human health.
The CDC asked leaders in agriculture, healthcare, and other disciplines to work together to combat the issue of increasing antibiotic resistance. Some scientists have said that "all therapeutic antimicrobial agents should be available only by prescription for human and veterinary use." The Pew Charitable Trusts have stated that "hundreds of scientific studies conducted over four decades demonstrate that feeding low doses of antibiotics to livestock breeds antibiotic-resistant superbugs that can infect people.
The FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all testified before Congress that there is a definitive link between the routine, non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in food animal production and the challenge of antibiotic resistance in humans." Moderate positions The World Organisation for Animal Health has acknowledged the need to protect antibiotics but argued against a total ban on antibiotic use in animal production.
 Positions of advocates for status quo In 2011 the National Pork Producers Council, an American trade association, has said "Not only is there no scientific study linking antibiotic use in food animals to antibiotic resistance in humans, as the U.S. pork industry has continually pointed out, but there isn't even adequate data to conduct a study." The statement contradicts scientific consensus, and was issued in response to a United States Government Accountability Office report that asserts "antibiotic use in food animals contributes to the emergence of resistant bacteria that may affect humans".
 The National Pork Board, a Government-owned corporation of the United States, has said that "the vast majority of producers use (antibiotics) appropriately." Effects of restricting antibiotic use When government regulation restricts use of antibiotics the negative economic impact is not often considered. Regulation of antibiotics in livestock production would affect the business models of corporations including Tyson Foods, Cargill, and Hormel.
 Difficulties with determining relevant facts It is difficult to set up a comprehensive surveillance system for measuring rates of change in antibiotic resistance. The US Government Accountability Office published a report in 2011 stating that government and commercial agencies had not been collecting sufficient data to make a decision about best practices. Currently there is no regulatory agency in the United States that systematically collects detailed data on antibiotic use in humans and animals.
It is not clear which antibiotics are prescribed for which purpose and at what time. Furthermore, the world has no surveillance infrastructure to monitor emerging antibiotic resistance threats. Because of these issues, it is difficult to quantify antibiotic resistance, to regulate antibiotic prescribing practices, and to detect and respond to rising threats. Specific resistance that has been identified and human impact There have been many studies that document antibiotic resistant bacteria in livestock, though the impact of the different bacteria in humans is still undergoing research.
At this time, the most well-documented impact on humans is foodborne gastrointestinal illness. In most cases, these illnesses are mild and do not require antibiotics; though if the infectious bacteria is drug-resistant, research has shown that these bacteria have increased virulence (ability to cause disease), leading to prolonged illness. Furthermore, in approximately 10% of cases, the disease becomes severe, requiring more advanced treatments.
These treatments can take the form of intravenous antibiotics, supportive care for blood infections, and hospital stays, leading to higher costs and greater morbidity with a trend toward higher mortality. Severe disease with this outcome is more common with drug-resistant bacteria. Though all people are susceptible, populations shown to be at higher risk for severe disease include children, the elderly, and those with chronic disease.
 Over the past 20 years, the most common drug-resistant foodborne bacteria in industrialized countries have been non-typhoidal salmonella and campylobacter. Research has consistently shown the main contributing factors are bacteria sourced in livestock. One example of this was a 1998 outbreak of multidrug-resistant salmonella in Denmark linked back to two Danish swine herds. Coupled with the discovery of this link, there have been improved monitoring systems that have helped to quantify the impact.
In the United States, it is estimated that there are approximately 400,000 cases and over 35,000 hospitalizations per year attributable to increasing resistant strains of salmonella and campylobacter. In terms of financial impact in the US, the treatment of non-typhoidal salmonella infections alone is now estimated to cost $365 million per year. In light of this, in its inaugural 2013 report on antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, the CDC identified resistant non-typhoidal salmonella and campylobacter as "serious threats" and called for improved surveillance and intervention in food production moving forward.
 There are other bacteria as well, where research is evolving and revealing that bacterial resistance acquired through use in livestock may be contributing to disease in humans. Examples of these include Enterococcus, E. coli 0157 and Staphylococcus Aureus. In the case of foodborne illness from E.coli, though it is still not typically treated with antibiotics because of associated risk of renal failure, increasing rates of antibiotic resistant infections have been correlated with increasing virulence of the bacteria.
 In the case of enterococcus and staphylococcus aureus, resistant forms of both of these bacteria have resulted in greatly increasing morbidity and mortality in the US. At this point, there have been studies, though a limited number, that definitively link antibiotic use in food production to these resistance patterns in humans and further research will help to further characterize this relationship.
 Mechanisms for transfer to humans Humans can be exposed to antibiotic-resistant bacteria by ingesting them through the food supply. Dairy products, ground beef and poultry are the most common foods harboring these pathogens. There is evidence that a large proportion of resistant E. coli isolates causing blood stream infections in people are from livestock produced as food. When manure from antibiotic-fed swine is used as fertilizer elsewhere, the manure may be contaminated with bacteria which can infect humans.
 Studies have also shown that direct contact with livestock can lead to the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from animals to humans., Action and advocacy by country Legislation and activism worldwide have aimed at restricting antibiotic use in livestock. European Union On 1 January 2006 the European Union banned the non-medicinal use of antibiotics in livestock production. United States During 2007, two federal bills (S.
549 and H.R. 962) aimed at phasing out "nontherapeutic" antibiotics in U.S. food animal production. The Senate bill, introduced by Sen. Edward "Ted" Kennedy, died. The House bill, introduced by Rep. Louise Slaughter, died after being referred to Committee. In March 2012, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, ruling in an action brought by the Natural Resources Defense Council and others, ordered the FDA to revoke approvals for the use of antibiotics in livestock that violated FDA regulations.
 On April 11, 2012 the FDA announced a voluntary program to phase out unsupervised use of drugs as feed additives and convert approved over-the-counter uses for antibiotics to prescription use only, requiring veterinarian supervision of their use and a prescription. In December 2013, the FDA announced the commencement of these steps to phase out the use of antibiotics for the purposes of promoting livestock growth.
 Some grocery stores have policies about voluntarily not selling meat produced by using antibiotics to stimulate growth. In 2012 in the United States advocacy organization Consumers Union organized a petition asking the store Trader Joe's to discontinue the sale of meat produced with antibiotics. The U.S. Animal Drug User Fee Act was passed by Congress in 2008 and requires that drug manufacturers report all sales of antibiotics into the food animal production industry.
 Some proposed legislation in the US has failed to be adopted. The Animal Drug and Animal Generic Drug User Fee Reauthorization Act of 2013 proposes other regulation. In the United States the danger of emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains due to wide use of antibiotics to promote weight gain in livestock was determined by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1977, but nothing effective was done to prevent the practice.
In March, 2012 the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, ruling in an action brought by the Natural Resources Defense Council and others, ordered the FDA to revoke approvals for the use of antibiotics in livestock which violated FDA regulations. On 11 April 2012 the FDA announced a program to phase out unsupervised use of drugs as feed additives and, on a voluntary basis, convert approved uses for antibiotics to therapeutic use only, requiring veterinarian supervision of their use and a prescription.
 In response to consumer concerns about the use of antibiotics in poultry, in 2007, Perdue removed all human antibiotics from its feed and launched the Harvestland brand, under which it sold products that met the requirements for an "antibiotic-free" label. By 2014, Perdue had also phased out ionophores (antibiotics used in animals to lower production costs by promoting growth, and preventing disease) from its hatchery and began using the "antibiotic free" labels on its Harvestland, Simply Smart and Perfect Portions products.
 By 2015, 52% of the company's chickens were raised without the use of any type of antibiotics. In 1970 the FDA started recommending that antibiotic use in livestock be limited but set no actual regulations governing this recommendation. Further, in 2004 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) heavily critiqued the FDA for not collecting enough information and data on antibiotic use in factory farms.
From this the GAO concluded that the FDA does not have enough information to create effective policy changes regarding antibiotic use. In response to this the FDA insisted that more research was being conducted and voluntary efforts within the industry would solve the problem of antibiotic resistance. Growing U.S. consumer concern about using antibiotics in animal feed has led to greater availability of "antibiotic-free" animal products.
For example, chicken producer Perdue removed all human antibiotics from its feed and launched products labeled “antibiotic free” under the Harvestland brand in 2007. Consumer response was positive, and in 2014 Perdue also phased out ionophores from its hatchery and began using the “antibiotic free” labels on its Harvestland, Simply Smart, and Perfect Portions products. China In 2012, U.
S. News & World Report described the Chinese government's regulation of antibiotics in livestock production as "weak". India In 2011 the Indian government proposed a "National policy for containment of antimicrobial resistance". Other policies set schedules for requiring that food producing animals not be given antibiotics for a certain amount of time before their food goes to market.
 A study released by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) on 30 July 2014 found antibiotic residues in chicken. This study claims that Indians are developing resistance to antibiotics – and hence falling prey to a host of otherwise curable ailments. Some of this resistance might be due to large-scale unregulated use of antibiotics in the poultry industry. CSE finds that India has not set any limits for antibiotic residues in chicken and says that India will have to implement a comprehensive set of regulations including banning of antibiotic use as growth promoters in the poultry industry.
Not doing this will put lives of people at risk. Brazil Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been found in Brazilian cattle. South Korea In 1998 some researchers reported use in livestock production was a factor in the high prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Korea. In 2007 The Korea Times noted that Korea has relatively high usage of antibiotics in livestock production. In 2011 the Korean government banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock.
 New Zealand In 1999 the New Zealand government issued a statement that they would not then ban the use of antibiotics in livestock production. In 2007 ABC Online reported on antibiotic use in chicken production in New Zealand. Research into alternatives Increasing concern due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has led researchers to look for alternatives to using antibiotics in livestock.
 Probiotics, cultures of a single bacteria strain or mixture of different strains, are being studied in livestock as a production enhancer. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are mainly made up of oligosaccharides which are short chains of monosaccharides. The two most commonly studied prebiotics are fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and mannanoligosaccharides (MOS).
FOS has been studied for use in chicken feed. MOS works as a competitive binding site, as bacteria bind to it rather than the intestine and are carried out. Bacteriophages are able to infect most bacteria and are easily found in most environments colonized by bacteria, and have been studied as well. In another study it was found that using probiotics, competitive exclusion, enzymes, immunomodulators and organic acids prevents the spread of bacteria and can all be used in place of antibiotics.
 Another research team was able to use bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages in the control of bacterial infections. While further research is needed in this field, alternative methods have been identified in effectively controlling bacterial infections in animals. All of the alternative methods listed pose no known threat to human health and all can lead the elimination of antibiotics in factory farms.
With further research it is highly likely that a cost effective and health effective alternative could and will be found. References ^ a b FDA CVM. 2012: Guidance for Industry #209: The Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food-Producing Animals. ^ a b "Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) Basics". www.avma.org. Retrieved 2017-03-14. ^ a b c Network, University of Nebraska-Lincoln | Web Developer.
"Veterinary Feed Directive Questions and Answers | UNL Beef | University of Nebraska–Lincoln". beef.unl.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-14. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Ban on antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed enters into effect". europa.eu. ^ a b c Medicine, Center for Veterinary. "Guidance for Industry - FDA's Strategy on Antimicrobial Resistance - Questions and Answers".
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ISBN 978-0151013401. ^ Reported locally in these: "To Become Vegetarians", Mansfield (O.) News, January 17, 1910, p2 "150,000 at Cleveland Stop the Use of Meat" Syracuse Herald-Journal, January 25, 1910, p1 "Boycott on Meat is Rapidly Spreading; Men Who Are Blamed For High Price", Atlanta Constitution, January 25, 1910, p1 ^ Scully, M. (2002). Dominion: the power of man, the suffering of animals, and the call to mercy.
St. Martins Griffin, New York (Book). ^ Ogle cites To meet this new consumer demand for animal meat, the improved health management has since introduced about seventeen classes of antimicrobial drugs is approved for use in food animals in the United States today. "They've Doubled Gains With New Drugs". Successful Farming. 48 (6): 45. June 1950. "Antibiotics Now Proved in Hog and Poultry Ratios, They're the Biggest Feeding News in 40 Years!".
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; Greko, C.; Wallinga, D. B.; Beran, G. W.; Riley, D. G.; Thorne, P. S. (2006). "The Potential Role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations in Infectious Disease Epidemics and Antibiotic Resistance". Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (2): 313–316. doi:10.1289/ehp.8837. PMC 1817683 . PMID 17384785. ^ The Pew Charitable Trusts (15 October 2012). "Pew Comments on Proposed Antibiotics Legislation".
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; Waddell, J. (2003). "Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 53 (1): 28–52. doi:10.1093/jac/dkg483. PMID 14657094. ^ Yukhananov, Anna (11 April 2012). "U.S. seeks voluntary antibiotic limits in livestock". reuters.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. ^ Bax, R.; Bywater, R.; Cornaglia, G.; Goossens, H.
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"The Reinvention of Life and Death: Antibiotics before Swine". The Future : Six Drivers of Global Change (First edition. ed.). New York: Random House. pp. 227 and citation on 475. ISBN 9780812992946. Hurd, Scott (26 June 2012). "Commentary: 'Meat without Drugs' could be inhumane". Bovine Veterinarian. Retrieved 27 August 2013. All peer-reviewed scientific risk assessments have demonstrated a negligible risk of human health harm due to livestock antibiotic use.
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^ GAO. 2011: Antibiotic Resistance: Agencies Have Made Limited Progress Addressing Antibiotic Use in Animals. GAO-11-801. ^ Stephanie Strom (July 31, 2015). "Perdue Sharply Cuts Antibiotic Use in Chickens and Jabs at Its Rivals". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2015. ^ Salamon, Maureen (11 February 2013). "China's Overuse of Antibiotics in Livestock May Threaten Human Health". health.usnews.
com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. ^ Thacker, Teena (13 April 2011). "Govt wants to limit use of antibiotics in animals – Indian Express". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. ^ Sinha, Kounteya (25 November 2011). "New norm to curb antibiotic resistance – Times of India". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013. ^ Sinha, Kounteya (6 April 2012). "In a first, antibiotics bar on food-producing animals – Times of India".
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PMID 7786507. ^ Kim, Woo Joo; Park, Seung Chull (1998). "bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents: An Overview from Korea" (PDF). Yonsei Medical Journal. 39 (6): 488–494. Retrieved 29 August 2013. ^ Won-sup, Yoon (25 June 2007). "Antibiotics in Livestock Harm Human Beings". The Korea Times. Retrieved 29 August 2013. ^ Flynn, Dan (7 June 2011). "South Korea Bans Antibiotics in Animal Feed". foodsafetynews.
com. Retrieved 29 August 2013. ^ staff (7 January 1999). "NZ holds off ban on animal antibiotics – National – NZ Herald News". nzherald.co.nz. Retrieved 29 August 2013. ^ Williams, Robyn; Cook, Greg (11 August 2007). "Antibiotics and intensive chicken farming in New Zealand – The Science Show". abc.net.au. Retrieved 29 August 2013. ^ a b Allen H. K.; Trachsel J.; Looft T.; Casey T. A. (2014).
"Finding alternatives to antibiotics". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1323: 91–100. doi:10.1111/nyas.12468. PMID 24953233. ^ Hume M. E. (2011). "Historic perspective: Prebiotics, probiotics, and other alternatives to antibiotics". Poultry Science. 90 (11): 2663–9. doi:10.3382/ps.2010-01030. PMID 22010256. ^ Griggs J. P.; Jacob J. P. (2005). "Alternatives to Antibiotics for Organic Poultry Production" (PDF).
Poultry Science. 14: 750–756. doi:10.1093/japr/14.4.750. ^ Doyle, M.E. 2001: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use for Growth Promotion in Animal Husbandry. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison. ^ Joerger R.D. (2003). "Alternatives to antibiotics: bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides and bacteriophages". Poultry Science. 82 (4): 640–647. doi:10.1093/ps/82.4.640. External links PBS report on antibiotics in livestock production Fix Food, Fix Antibiotics, a 90-second video explaining the problem of antibiotic resistance and campaigning for action 2011 FDA report on antibiotics in animals in the United States Pew Trust campaign for restricting antibiotic use Antibiotic Resistance and the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, July 14, 2010 Resources on antibiotic use and resistance v t e Antibiotics − social and layperson issues Concepts Antibacterial Fungicide Antiviral drug Antiparasitic Antimicrobial Social issues Timeline of antibiotics Antibiotic resistance Antibiotic misuse Antibiotic use in livestock Pharmacology Antimicrobial pharmacodynamics List of antibiotics Production of antibiotics Retrieved from "https://en.
wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Antibiotic_use_in_livestock&oldid=822029913"See Also: Animal Shelter Grants Pass Oregon
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Out of a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the new blueness from the Florida sky, ran a small, tawny-haired boy. His bare ft, extending from his overalled legs, crackled versus the fallen palmettos. He leaped in to the air, flinging his arms toward a flock of white doves circling above him.
Chanukkah Level: Basic Significance: Remembers the rededication of the Temple after it was defiled by the Greeks Observances: Lighting candles Length: 8 days Customs: eating fried foods; playing with a dreidel (top) On the 25th of Kislev are the days of Chanukkah, which are eight... these were appointed a Festival with Hallel [prayers of praise] and thanksgiving. -Shabbat 21b, Babylonian Talmud Chanukkah, the Jewish festival of rededication, also known as the festival of lights, is an eight day festival beginning on the 25th day of the Jewish month of Kislev.
Chanukkah is probably one of the best known Jewish holidays, not because of any great religious significance, but because of its proximity to Christmas. Many non-Jews (and even many assimilated Jews!) think of this holiday as the Jewish Christmas, adopting many of the Christmas customs, such as elaborate gift-giving and decoration. It is bitterly ironic that this holiday, which has its roots in a revolution against assimilation and the suppression of Jewish religion, has become the most assimilated, secular holiday on our calendar.
The Story The story of Chanukkah begins in the reign of Alexander the Great. Alexander conquered Syria, Egypt and Palestine, but allowed the lands under his control to continue observing their own religions and retain a certain degree of autonomy. Under this relatively benevolent rule, many Jews assimilated much of Hellenistic culture, adopting the language, the customs and the dress of the Greeks, in much the same way that Jews in America today blend into the secular American society.
More than a century later, a successor of Alexander, Antiochus IV was in control of the region. He began to oppress the Jews severely, placing a Hellenistic priest in the Temple, massacring Jews, prohibiting the practice of the Jewish religion, and desecrating the Temple by requiring the sacrifice of pigs (a non-kosher animal) on the altar. Two groups opposed Antiochus: a basically nationalistic group led by Mattathias the Hasmonean and his son Judah Maccabee, and a religious traditionalist group known as the Chasidim, the forerunners of the Pharisees (no direct connection to the modern movement known as Chasidism).
They joined forces in a revolt against both the assimilation of the Hellenistic Jews and oppression by the Seleucid Greek government. The revolution succeeded and the Temple was rededicated. According to tradition as recorded in the Talmud, at the time of the rededication, there was very little oil left that had not been defiled by the Greeks. Oil was needed for the menorah (candelabrum) in the Temple, which was supposed to burn throughout the night every night.
There was only enough oil to burn for one day, yet miraculously, it burned for eight days, the time needed to prepare a fresh supply of oil for the menorah. An eight day festival was declared to commemorate this miracle. Note that the holiday commemorates the miracle of the oil, not the military victory: Jews do not glorify war. Traditions Our rabbis taught the rule of Chanukkah: ... on the first day one [candle] is lit and thereafter they are progressively increased .
.. [because] we increase in sanctity but do not reduce. -Shabbat 21b, Babylonian Talmud Chanukkah is not a very important religious holiday. The holiday's religious significance is far less than that of Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Passover, and Shavu'ot. It is roughly equivalent to Purim in significance, and you won't find many non-Jews who have even heard of Purim! Chanukkah is not mentioned in Jewish scripture; the story is related in the book of Maccabees, which Jews do not accept as scripture.
The only religious observance related to the holiday is the lighting of candles. The candles are arranged in a candelabrum called a menorah (or sometimes called a chanukkiah) that holds nine candles: one for each night, plus a shammus (servant) at a different height. On the first night, one candle is placed at the far right. The shammus candle is lit and three berakhot (blessings) are recited: l'hadlik neir (a general prayer over candles), she-asah nisim (a prayer thanking G-d for performing miracles for our ancestors at this time), and she-hekhianu (a general prayer thanking G-d for allowing us to reach this time of year).
See Chanukkah Candle Lighting Blessings for the full text of these blessings. After reciting the blessings, the first candle is then lit using the shammus candle, and the shammus candle is placed in its holder. Candles can be lit any time after dark but before midnight. The candles are normally allowed to burn out on their own after a minimum of 1/2 hour, but if necessary they can be blown out at any time after that 1/2 hour.
On Shabbat, Chanukkah candles are normally lit before the Shabbat candles, but may be lit any time before candlelighting time (18 minutes before sunset). Candles cannot be blown out on Shabbat (it's a violation of the sabbath rule against igniting or extinguishing a flame). Because the Chanukkah candles must remain burning until a minimum of 1/2 hour after dark (about 90 minutes total burning time on Shabbat), some Chanukkah candles won't get the job done.
On one of the earlier nights, you might want to make sure your candles last long enough. If they don't, you might want to use something else for Chanukkah on Shabbat, such as tea lights or even Shabbat candles. Each night, another candle is added from right to left (like the Hebrew language). Candles are lit from left to right (because you pay honor to the newer thing first). On the eighth night, all nine candles (the 8 Chanukkah candles and the shammus) are lit.
See animation at right for the candlelighting procedure. On nights after the first, only the first two blessings are recited; the third blessing, she-hekhianu is only recited on the first night of holidays. Why the shammus candle? The Chanukkah candles are for pleasure only; we are not allowed to use them for any productive purpose. We keep an extra one around (the shammus), so that if we need to do something useful with a candle, we don't accidentally use the Chanukkah candles.
The shammus candle is at a different height so that it is easily identified as the shammus. It is traditional to eat fried foods on Chanukkah because of the significance of oil to the holiday. Among Ashkenazic Jews, this usually includes latkes (pronounced "lot-kuhs" or "lot-keys" depending on where your grandmother comes from. Pronounced "potato pancakes" if you are a goy.) My recipe is included later in this page.
Gift-giving is not a traditional part of the holiday, but has been added in places where Jews have a lot of contact with Christians, as a way of dealing with our children's jealousy of their Christian friends. It is extremely unusual for Jews to give Chanukkah gifts to anyone other than their own young children. The only traditional gift of the holiday is "gelt," small amounts of money. Another tradition of the holiday is playing dreidel, a gambling game played with a square top.
Most people play for matchsticks, pennies, M&Ms or chocolate coins. The traditional explanation of this game is that during the time of Antiochus' oppression, those who wanted to study Torah (an illegal activity) would conceal their activity by playing gambling games with a top (a common and legal activity) whenever an official or inspector was within sight. A dreidel is marked with four Hebrew letters: Nun, Gimel, Hei and Shin.
These letters stand for the Hebrew phrase "Nes Gadol Hayah Sham", a great miracle happened there, referring to the miracle of the oil. The letters also stand for the Yiddish words nit (nothing), gantz (all), halb (half) and shtell (put), which are the rules of the game! There are some variations in the way people play the game, but the way I learned it, everyone puts in one coin. A person spins the dreidel.
E. It is believed to be written by a man named Mordecai, because that name is encrypted in the first letters of the five stanzas. The music dates back to at least the 18th century, and possibly as far back as the 15th century. Most people are only familiar with the first stanza, which is reproduced below. This very literal translation is not what most people are used to seeing (it is usually translated as "Rock of Ages").
Rocky Fortress of my SalvationIt is delightful to praise YouRestore my House of PrayerAnd there we will give thanks with an offeringWhen you have prepared the slaughterfor the blaspheming foeThen I will complete with a song of hymnthe dedication of the altarThen I will complete with a song of hymnthe dedication of the altar Ma'oz tzur y'shuatiL'kha na-eh l'shabei-achTikon beyt t'filatiV'sham todah n'zabei-achL'eit tachin matbei-achMitzar ha-m'nabei-achAz egmor b'shir mizmorChanukat ha-mizbei-achAz egmor b'shir mizmorChanukat ha-mizbei-ach A less literal but more singable translation: Rock of Ages, let our song, Praise Thy saving powerThou amidst the raging foes, Wast our sheltering towerFurious they assailed us, But Thine arm availed usAnd thy word broke their sword, When our own strength failed us.
And thy word broke their sword, When our own strength failed us. Mi Y'maleil? (Who Can Retell?) Although the translation is not quite literal, it's the closest thing to a literal translation I've been able to find. For some reasons, this popular Chanukkah song is usually translated with great liberties. Who can tell of the feats of IsraelWho can count them?In every age a hero arose to save the people.
Who can tell of the feats of IsraelWho can count them?In every age a hero arose to save the people. Hear! In those days at this timeMaccabee saved and freed usAnd in our days the whole people of IsraelArise united to save ourselves. Mi y'malel g'vurot YisraelOtan mi yimneh?Hein b'khol dor yakum hagibor, go-el ha-am.Mi yemalel g'vurot Yisra-elOtan mi yimneh?Hen b'khol dor yakum hagibor, go-el ha-am.
Sh'ma! Ba-yamim ha-heim ba-z'man hazehMaccabee moshiya u'fodehU'v'yameinu kol am YisraelYitacheid yakum l'higa-el. A popular less literal but more singable translation: Who can retell the things that befell us, who can count them?In every age a hero or sage came to our aidWho can retell the things that befell us, who can count them?In every age a hero or sage came to our aid Hear! In days of yore in Israel's ancient landMaccabeus led the faithful bandNow all Israel must as one ariseRedeem itself through deed and sacrifice Chanukkah, Oh Chanukkah There are many variations on this popular Chanukkah tune.
I've provided singable versions in both English and Yiddish. The lyrics of these two versions don't really correspond to each other, but both versions speak of the fun of the secular trappings of the holiday, with slight reference to the religious aspects. Chanukkah, Oh ChanukkahCome light the menorahLet's have a partyWe'll all dance the horaGather round the table, we'll have a treatShiny tops to play with, latkes to eat And while we are playingThe candles are burning lowOne for each night, they shed a sweet lightTo remind us of days long ago Chanukkah, O ChanukkahA yontev a sheynerA lustiger a freylicherNito noch azoynerAle nacht in dreydl shpiln mirZudigheyse latkes esn mir Geshvinder tsindt kinderDi dininke lichtelech onZogt "al ha-nisim," loybt G-t far di nisimUn kumt gicher tantsn in kon And no list of Chanukkah songs would be complete without a link to the Maccabeats' brilliant music video, Candlelight, a parody of Taio Cruz's "Dynamite" that tells the story of Chanukkah.
The Maccabeats are an a cappella group from Yeshiva University, so you know they'll get all the details right! Recipe for Latkes Makes approximately 12 palm-sized latkes 4 medium potatoes 1 medium onion 2 eggs 1/2 cup matzah meal (flour or bread crumbs can be substituted) 1 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. each salt and black pepper (more or less to taste) vegetable oil Shred the potatoes and onion into a large bowl.
Press out all excess liquid.(if using a food processor, use the chopping blade for 2 or 3 seconds after pressing out liquid to avoid stringy fly-aways). Add eggs and mix well. Add matzah meal gradually while mixing until the batter is doughy, not too dry. (you may not need the whole amount, depending on how well you drained the veggies). Add the baking powder, salt and pepper and mix well. (don't taste the batter -- it's really gross!).
Don't worry if the batter turns a little orange; that will go away when it fries. Heat about 1/2 inch of oil to medium-high heat. Form the batter into thin patties about the size of your palm. Fry batter in oil. Be patient: this takes time, and too much flipping will burn the outside without cooking the inside. Flip when the bottom is golden brown. Place finished latkes on paper towels to drain. Eat hot with sour cream or applesauce.
They reheat OK in a microwave, but not in an oven unless you cook them just right. If you'd like to try something a little different, add some bell peppers, parsley, carrots, celery, or other vegetables to the batter to make veggie latkes! You may need to add a third egg and some more matzah meal for this. For a zesty twist, add some diced jalepeño peppers to the batter! This should definitely be served with sour cream! I have put a video on YouTube that illustrates some hard-to-describe aspects of latke making: how deep to make the oil, how to tell when the oil is ready, how to tell when the latkes are ready to flip and so forth.
Time-saving substitutions: Grocery stores now provide many time-saving options for cooking. The substitutions below will save you time in preparing the batter and cleaning up. Sorry, nothing I can do to speed the frying time. You can substitute any or all of these: Substitute 3 cups hash-brown style shredded potatoes for the potatoes (Simply Potatoes brand works well and is kosher-certified) Substitute 1 cup frozen chopped onions (thawed and drained) for the onion Substitute 1/2 cup egg whites from a carton for the eggs List of Dates Chanukkah will occur on the following days of the secular calendar: Jewish Year 5777: sunset December 24, 2016 - nightfall January 1, 2017(first candle: night of 12/24; last candle: night of 12/31) Jewish Year 5778: sunset December 12, 2017 - nightfall December 20, 2017(first candle: night of 12/12; last candle: night of 12/19) Jewish Year 5779: sunset December 2, 2018 - nightfall December 10, 2018(first candle: night of 12/2; last candle: night of 12/9) Jewish Year 5780: sunset December 22, 2019 - nightfall December 30, 2019(first candle: night of 12/22; last candle: night of 12/29) Jewish Year 5781: sunset December 10, 2020 - nightfall December 18, 2020(first candle: night of 12/10; last candle: night of 12/17) For additional holiday dates, see Links to Jewish Calendars.
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