Book cover of The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Disney's Twelve Basic Principles of Animation were introduced by the Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation.[a] Johnston and Thomas in turn based their book on the work of the leading Disney animators from the 1930s onwards, and their effort to produce more realistic animations.
The main purpose of the principles was to produce an illusion of characters adhering to the basic laws of physics, but they also dealt with more abstract issues, such as emotional timing and character appeal. The book and some of its principles have been adopted by some traditional studios, and have been referred to by some as the "Bible of animation." In 1999 this book was voted number one of the "best animation books of all time" in an online poll.
 Though originally intended to apply to traditional, hand-drawn animation, the principles still have great relevance for today's more prevalent computer animation. The 12 Principles of Animation Squash and Stretch Illustration of the "squash and stretch"-principle: Example A shows a ball bouncing with a rigid, non-dynamic movement. In example B the ball is "squashed" at impact, and "stretched" during fall and rebound.
The movement also accelerates during the fall, and slows down towards the apex (see "slow in and slow out"). Animated sequence of a race horse galloping. Photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge. The horse's body demonstrates squash and stretch in natural musculature. The most important principle is "squash and stretch", the purpose of which is to give a sense of weight and flexibility to drawn objects.
It can be applied to simple objects, like a bouncing ball, or more complex constructions, like the musculature of a human face. Taken to an extreme point, a figure stretched or squashed to an exaggerated degree can have a comical effect. In realistic animation, however, the most important aspect of this principle is the fact that an object's volume does not change when squashed or stretched.
If the length of a ball is stretched vertically, its width (in three dimensions, also its depth) needs to contract correspondingly horizontally. Anticipation Anticipation is used to prepare the audience for an action, and to make the action appear more realistic. A dancer jumping off the floor has to bend the knees first; a golfer making a swing has to swing the club back first. The technique can also be used for less physical actions, such as a character looking off-screen to anticipate someone's arrival, or attention focusing on an object that a character is about to pick up.
 Anticipation: A baseball player making a pitch prepares for the action by moving his arm back. Staging This principle is akin to staging in theatre, as it is known in theatre and film. Its purpose is to direct the audience's attention, and make it clear what is of greatest importance in a scene; Johnston and Thomas defined it as "the presentation of any idea so that it is completely and unmistakably clear", whether that idea is an action, a personality, an expression, or a mood.
 This can be done by various means, such as the placement of a character in the frame, the use of light and shadow, or the angle and position of the camera. The essence of this principle is keeping focus on what is relevant, and avoiding unnecessary detail. Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose These are two different approaches to the actual drawing process. "Straight ahead action" scenes are animated frame by frame from beginning to end, while "pose to pose" involves starting with drawing a few key frames, and then filling in the intervals later.
 "Straight ahead action" creates a more fluid, dynamic illusion of movement, and is better for producing realistic action sequences. On the other hand, it is hard to maintain proportions, and to create exact, convincing poses along the way. "Pose to pose" works better for dramatic or emotional scenes, where composition and relation to the surroundings are of greater importance. A combination of the two techniques is often used.
 Computer animation removes the problems of proportion related to "straight ahead action" drawing; however, "pose to pose" is still used for computer animation, because of the advantages it brings in composition. The use of computers facilitates this method, and can fill in the missing sequences in between poses automatically. It is, however, still important to oversee this process and apply the other principles discussed.
 Follow Through and Overlapping Action Follow through and overlapping action is a general heading for two closely related techniques which help to render movement more realistically, and help to give the impression that characters follow the laws of physics, including the principle of inertia. "Follow through" means that loosely tied parts of a body should continue moving after the character has stopped and the parts should keep moving beyond the point where the character stopped only to be subsequently "pulled back" towards the center of mass and/or exhibiting various degrees of oscillation damping.
"Overlapping action" is the tendency for parts of the body to move at different rates (an arm will move on different timing of the head and so on). A third, related technique is "drag", where a character starts to move and parts of him take a few frames to catch up. These parts can be inanimate objects like clothing or the antenna on a car, or parts of the body, such as arms or hair. On the human body, the torso is the core, with arms, legs, head and hair appendices that normally follow the torso's movement.
Body parts with much tissue, such as large stomachs and breasts, or the loose skin on a dog, are more prone to independent movement than bonier body parts. Again, exaggerated use of the technique can produce a comical effect, while more realistic animation must time the actions exactly, to produce a convincing result. The "moving hold" animates between similar key frames, even characters sitting still can display some sort of movement, such as the torso moving in and out with breathing.
 Ease In and Ease Out The movement of the human body, and most other objects, needs time to accelerate and slow down. For this reason, animation looks more realistic if it has more drawings near the beginning and end of an action, emphasizing the extreme poses, and fewer in the middle. This principle goes for characters moving between two extreme poses, such as sitting down and standing up, but also for inanimate, moving objects, like the bouncing ball in the above illustration.
 Arc Most natural action tends to follow an arched trajectory, and animation should adhere to this principle by following implied "arcs" for greater realism. This technique can be applied to a moving limb by rotating a joint, or a thrown object moving along a parabolic trajectory. The exception is mechanical movement, which typically moves in straight lines. As an object's speed or momentum increases, arcs tend to flatten out in moving ahead and broaden in turns.
In baseball, a fastball would tend to move in a straighter line than other pitches; while a figure skater moving at top speed would be unable to turn as sharply as a slower skater, and would need to cover more ground to complete the turn. An object in motion that moves out of its natural arc for no apparent reason will appear erratic rather than fluid. For example, when animating a pointing finger, the animator should be certain that in all drawings in between the two extreme poses, the fingertip follows a logical arc from one extreme to the next.
Traditional animators tend to draw the arc in lightly on the paper for reference, to be erased later. Secondary Action Secondary Action: as the horse runs, its mane and tail follow the movement of the body. Adding secondary actions to the main action gives a scene more life, and can help to support the main action. A person walking can simultaneously swing their arms or keep them in their pockets, speak or whistle, or express emotions through facial expressions.
 The important thing about secondary actions is that they emphasize, rather than take attention away from the main action. If the latter is the case, those actions are better left out. For example, during a dramatic movement, facial expressions will often go unnoticed. In these cases it is better to include them at the beginning and the end of the movement, rather than during. Timing "Timing (animation)" redirects here.
For the animation technique, see Blocking (animation). Timing refers to the number of drawings or frames for a given action, which translates to the speed of the action on film. On a purely physical level, correct timing makes objects appear to obey the laws of physics; for instance, an object's weight determines how it reacts to an impetus, like a push. Timing is critical for establishing a character's mood, emotion, and reaction.
 It can also be a device to communicate aspects of a character's personality. Exaggeration Exaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation, as animated motions that strive for a perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull. The level of exaggeration depends on whether one seeks realism or a particular style, like a caricature or the style of a specific artist. The classical definition of exaggeration, employed by Disney, was to remain true to reality, just presenting it in a wilder, more extreme form.
 Other forms of exaggeration can involve the supernatural or surreal, alterations in the physical features of a character; or elements in the storyline itself. It is important to employ a certain level of restraint when using exaggeration. If a scene contains several elements, there should be a balance in how those elements are exaggerated in relation to each other, to avoid confusing or overawing the viewer.
 Solid drawing The principle of solid drawing means taking into account forms in three-dimensional space, or giving them volume and weight. The animator needs to be a skilled artist and has to understand the basics of three-dimensional shapes, anatomy, weight, balance, light and shadow, etc. For the classical animator, this involved taking art classes and doing sketches from life. One thing in particular that Johnston and Thomas warned against was creating "twins": characters whose left and right sides mirrored each other, and looked lifeless.
 Modern-day computer animators draw less because of the facilities computers give them, yet their work benefits greatly from a basic understanding of animation principles, and their additions to basic computer animation. Appeal Appeal in a cartoon character corresponds to what would be called charisma in an actor. A character who is appealing is not necessarily sympathetic – villains or monsters can also be appealing – the important thing is that the viewer feels the character is real and interesting.
 There are several tricks for making a character connect better with the audience; for likable characters a symmetrical or particularly baby-like face tends to be effective. A complicated or hard to read face will lack appeal, it may more accurately be described as 'captivation' in the composition of the pose, or the character design. Notes a. ^ The twelve principles have been paraphrased and shortened by Nataha Lightfoot for Animation Toolworks.
 Johnston and Thomas themselves found this version good enough to put it up on their own website. See also Animation Computer animation References ^ Thomas, Frank; Ollie Johnston (1997) . The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Hyperion. pp. 47–69. ISBN 978-0-7868-6070-8. ^ Allan, Robin. "Walt Disney's Nine Old Men & The Art Of Animation". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on November 2, 2013.
Retrieved October 21, 2011. ^ "List of Best Animation Books". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2011. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 47. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 47–51. ^ De Stefano, Ralph A. "Squash and stretch". Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved June 26, 2008. ^ Willian (July 5, 2006).
"Squash and Stretch". Blender. Retrieved June 27, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 49. ^ De Stefano, Ralph A. "Anticipation". Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved June 27, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 51–2. ^ a b Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 53. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lightfoot, Nataha. "12 Principles". Animation Toolworks. Retrieved June 27, 2008.
^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 53, 56. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 56. ^ Willian (July 5, 2006). "Staging". Blender. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 56–8. ^ a b Willian (July 5, 2006). "Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose". Blender. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ De Stefano, Ralph A. "Straight Ahead Action and Pose-To-Pose Action". Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 59–62. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 60. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 61–2. ^ Willian (July 5, 2006). "Slow In and Out". Blender. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 62–3. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 63–4. ^ De Stefano, Ralph A. "Secondary Action". Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 64. ^ De Stefano, Ralph A. "Timing". Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 64–5. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 65-6. ^ Willian (June 29, 2006). "Exaggeration". Blender. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ De Stefano, Ralph A. "Exaggeration". Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago.
Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), pp. 66–7. ^ a b Willian (July 5, 2006). "Solid Drawing". Blender. Retrieved June 15, 2010. ^ Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 67. ^ Lasseter, John (August 1987). "Principles of traditional animation applied to 3d computer animation". SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics (21): 35–44. ^ a b Johnston & Thomas (1981), p. 68. ^ Willian (June 29, 2006).
"Appeal". Blender. Retrieved June 28, 2008. ^ Thomas, Frank; Ollie Johnston (2002). "Animation Tips: Principles of Physical Animation". Frank and Ollie. Retrieved July 4, 2008. Further reading Bancroft, Tom; Glen Keane (2006). Creating Characters with Personality: For Film, TV, Animation, Video Games, and Graphic Novels. Watson-Guptill. ISBN 978-0-8230-2349-3. Lasseter, John (July 1987). "Principles of Traditional Animation applied to 3D Computer Animation".
ACM Computer Graphics. 21 (4): 35–44. doi:10.1145/37402.37407. Mattesi, Mike (2002). Force: Dynamic Life Drawing for Animators, Second Edition. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-80845-1. Osipa, Jason (2005). Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-78920-8. Whitaker, Harold; John Halas (2002). Timing for Animation. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-51714-8.
White, Tony (1998). The Animator's Workbook: Step-By-Step Techniques of Drawn Animation. Watson-Guptill. ISBN 978-0-8230-0229-0. See also list of best animation books at Animation World Network. External links The illusion of life, a simple animated illustration of the twelve principles. v t e Walt Disney Animation Studios List of feature films Released Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) Pinocchio (1940) Fantasia (1940) Dumbo (1941) Bambi (1942) Saludos Amigos (1942) The Three Caballeros (1944) Make Mine Music (1946) Fun and Fancy Free (1947) Melody Time (1948) The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr.
Toad (1949) Cinderella (1950) Alice in Wonderland (1951) Peter Pan (1953) Lady and the Tramp (1955) Sleeping Beauty (1959) One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) The Sword in the Stone (1963) The Jungle Book (1967) The Aristocats (1970) Robin Hood (1973) The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh (1977) The Rescuers (1977) The Fox and the Hound (1981) The Black Cauldron (1985) The Great Mouse Detective (1986) Oliver & Company (1988) The Little Mermaid (1989) The Rescuers Down Under (1990) Beauty and the Beast (1991) Aladdin (1992) The Lion King (1994) Pocahontas (1995) The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996) Hercules (1997) Mulan (1998) Tarzan (1999) Fantasia 2000 (1999) Dinosaur (2000) The Emperor's New Groove (2000) Atlantis: The Lost Empire (2001) Lilo & Stitch (2002) Treasure Planet (2002) Brother Bear (2003) Home on the Range (2004) Chicken Little (2005) Meet the Robinsons (2007) Bolt (2008) The Princess and the Frog (2009) Tangled (2010) Winnie the Pooh (2011) Wreck-It Ralph (2012) Frozen (2013) Big Hero 6 (2014) Zootopia (2016) Moana (2016) Upcoming films Ralph Breaks the Internet: Wreck-It Ralph 2 (2018) Frozen 2 (2019) Associated productions The Reluctant Dragon (1941) Victory Through Air Power (1943) Song of the South (1946) So Dear to My Heart (1949) Mary Poppins (1964) Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971) Pete's Dragon (1977) Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) Enchanted (2007) People Executives Edwin Catmull Roy Conli Roy E.
Disney Walt Disney Don Hahn Jeffrey Katzenberg John Lasseter Peter Schneider Thomas Schumacher David Stainton Disney's Nine Old Men Les Clark Marc Davis Ollie Johnston Milt Kahl Ward Kimball Eric Larson John Lounsbery Wolfgang Reitherman Frank Thomas Related topics History Disney animators' strike Disney Renaissance Methods and technologies 12 basic principles of animation Computer Animation Production System Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life Multiplane camera Documentaries Frank and Ollie (1995) The Sweatbox (2001) Dream On Silly Dreamer (2005) Waking Sleeping Beauty (2009) Other Disney animation units Disney Television Animation DisneyToon Studios (WDAS unit) Lucasfilm Animation Marvel Animation Pixar Animation Studios Circle 7 (defunct) Miscellaneous Alice Comedies Laugh-O-Gram Studio List of Disney animated shorts List of Disney theatrical animated features unproduced Oswald the Lucky Rabbit Mickey Mouse (film series) Silly Symphonies Once Upon a Time v t e Animation topics By country Bangladesh Bhutan China Czech Republic Estonia India Japan Korea Malaysia Philippines Portugal Romania Spain Thailand United States Vietnam History Azerbaijan Bangladesh Brazil Canada China France Hungary Iran Korea Japan Russia United Kingdom United States Industry Animator List Animation department Animation director Story artist Animation studios List Animation database Biologist simulators Animation film festivals international regional Highest-grossing films (Openings weekends) Outsourcing International Animation Day Works Films Based on cartoons Computer-animated Feature-length Lost or unfinished Package Short Short series Stop-motion Series Direct-to-video Internet Television Techniques Traditional Limited animation Masking Rotoscoping Stop motion Barrier grid Clay strata-cut Cutout (silhouette) Graphic Model go motion Object Pixilation Puppetoon Computer (history, timeline) 2D Flash PowerPoint SVG CSS Digital puppetry 3D Cel shading Crowd Morph target Motion capture Non-photorealistic rendering Procedural Skeletal Machinima Digital puppetry Virtual cinematography Other methods Blocking Chuckimation Drawn-on-film Flip book Inbetweening Kinegram Paint-on-glass Pinscreen Pixel art Pose to pose Rubber hose Sand Syncro-Vox Zoetrope Variants Abstract animation (visual music) Adult animation Animated cartoon Animated sitcom Animated documentary Cartoon pornography Educational animation Erotic animation Independent animation Instructional animation Related topics Animation music Mickey Mousing Character animation model sheet walk cycle lip sync off-model Twelve principles Motion comic Films with live action and animation highest grossing Cartoon physics Cartoon violence Most expensive animated films Book Category Portal Retrieved from "https://en.
wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=12_basic_principles_of_animation&oldid=819970100"See Also: Animal Rescue Coalition Sarasota
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Outside of a jungle of rain-washed pines and junipers spearing the new blueness of the Florida sky, ran a small, tawny-haired boy. His bare feet, extending from his overalled legs, crackled against the fallen palmettos. He leaped in to the air, flinging his arms towards a flock of white doves circling above him.
Share This Mind. Blown! How do animators breathe life onto a blank canvas? How do they get us to laugh at Pascal, sympathize with Carl, and feel the longing of Ariel wanting to be part of your world? How do they make us believe that the things they’ve rendered are actually alive? To answer any of these questions, one must first understand the 12 principles of animation. Made famous by two of Walt Disney’s legendary Nine Old Men, Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas, the 12 principles of animation have become an essential must-learn for all aspiring and working animators in the industry today.
As Frank and Ollie say in their cameo at the end of The Incredibles (Yes, that was them!), “There’s no school like the old school!” Take a journey through Disney and Disney•Pixar’s wonderful world of animation and see how these classic principles have influenced some of your favorite films today! 1. Squash and Stretch – The squash and stretch principle gives the illusion of weight and volume to a character as they move.
This is done by expanding and compressing the character’s body. To see the principle in action, take a look at this scene from the Pixar short Day and Night. Notice how as the two characters dance around, their shapes compress ever so slightly and then stretch back into shape. As a result, we as an audience actually believe that they are dancing because we see the impact that gravity has on their bodies.
2. Anticipation – Anticipation is used to let the audience know that a major action is about to take place. To do this, animators will often work in a smaller action or two, right before the major action to signal that something is coming. Notice how Thumper draws back his leg before breaking into a run? This is anticipation in action! 3. Staging – Staging is the principle that every pose or action that a character makes should convey a clear intention.
Take these images of Tinker Bell for instance. If you were to isolate Tink and make a silhouette of each of her poses, you would still be able to get the idea that Tink is overjoyed in the first pic, annoyed in the second pic, and feeling the zzzs in the final. Staging also applies to the movement and placing of the camera. In this scene from Finding Nemo, the swirl of the water directs the audience to the totally sweet action where they are supposed to be looking in that moment.
4. Straight Ahead and Pose to Pose – Straight ahead and pose to pose refers to the techniques by which animation is crafted. The pose to pose technique involves drawing the key poses that you’d like the character to take first and then filling in the transitional poses second. The straight ahead technique is more nuanced and involves an animator literally crafting one frame after another, as in this early draft of an iconic Cinderella scene.
Straight ahead is better for creating fluid, realistic actions while pose to pose is more effective for dramatic or emotional scenes where it’s more about conveying an idea than a sense of realness. 5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action – The follow through principle argues that when a character is in action and stops, nothing stops all at once. So when a character is running and stops, their main body will stop, but the other parts of their body will keep moving for a bit after.
For instance, in this scene, Mulan’s head stops first and then her hair. Tied to this idea is the overlapping action principle, which expresses the idea that if a character is in motion, some parts of the character move faster than others. In this Tangled scene, notice how Rapunzel’s hair moves faster than her body. 6. Slow-In and Slow-Out – Slow-in and slow-out is another principle designed to add realism to the movement of characters.
When characters are performing actions, animators will draw more frames at the start of the action, less frames in the middle, and more frames again at the end of the action to create this slow-in/slow-out effect. (Kind of like a pendulum!) Notice how Snow White’s actions in this scene are slow at the beginning and fast in the middle and then slow at the end. 92 Years of Walt Disney Animation Studios in 92 Seconds 7.
Arc – The arc principle is that almost all actions in life have a slightly circular motion. When a head turns or an arm moves, rarely will it thrust straight in and straight out. Often it will have a little curve to it. This Mickey GIF does a great job of illustrating this! 8. Secondary Action – A secondary action is an additional action that reinforces and adds more dimension to the main action.
The main action in this scene is Bolt’s mouth and the carrot, but the animators also threw in some adorable secondary leg action to reinforce the cuteness of the scene. 9. Timing – Timing helps create the illusion that an action is abiding by the laws of physics. By adjusting the timing of a scene, animators can make that scene look either slower and smoother (with more frames) or faster and crisper (with less frames).
10. Exaggeration – Exaggeration is all about overstating certain movements in a way that helps evoke a point, yet doesn’t ruin the believability of the scene. As you can probably guess from the previous GIFs, Disney is pretty darn good at this. But just in case you forgot, and also because we can’t help ourselves, here’s another prime example. 11. Solid Drawings – This principle encourages animators to be mindful of the fact that while forms may be presented in 2D, they should strive to look 3D.
In this example, despite being drawn in 2D, through the animation choices we as an audience feel that Zeus has weight and is three-dimensional. 12. Appeal – Obviously, not every character should be appealing. But this principle posits that animators should strive to create images that will be interesting and compelling to audiences. And there you have it! The 12 essential principles that make animated films so magical! There’s no doubt that animation would not be what it is today without these twelve pieces of wisdom.
We can’t wait to see how future Disney animators use and innovate on these principles in their works to come! Interested in becoming an animator in the future? Working in the industry now? Share your experiences with the 12 principles of animation in the comments! Posted 2 years Ago